translation from Latin and a few notes by MARIA CRISAN

translation from Romanian into English by Honorius Crisan

2001 – 2002

Upon a long dissertation within the Academy of Sciences, it is

resolved to be made public this historical truth by Carolus

Lundius, the author. On the same occasion, further data regarding the

antiquities of the Sveons, the Goths/Getae, as well as other nations,

such things never having been tackled before by others, is now brought

to light, briefly, by the same author.







ESTONIA, LIVONIA, KARELIA, Bremen, Verden, Stetin, Pomerania,

Cassubia and Vandalia, Prince of Rugia, Ingria, ruler of Vismaria and

of the County of Rhenania Palatinate as well, Duke of the Bavarian

Mountains, Jullich and Clivie, August The Most Faithful And Happy,

my Most Best King and Master.

Most enlightened and all-powerful KING, most gentle MASTER!

May dear this humble, little book – and yet deserving the

attention of an elevated spirit – be submitted to the bright eye of Your

Royal Majesty; well, yes, since through it anyone would be able to

recall things the little book speaks of and which Your Royal Majesty

has, heart and soul, devoted to, as early as the years of Your youth everything

plentifully bears witness of it: I mean the German

JUSTICE and EQUITY; to those two noble missions and attributes a

rare finesse KINDNESS adds, which is cautiously handled by Your

Royal Majesty, so the human wisdom perfection reflects in IT, so that,

should such features be performed on a theatre stage, it would resound

to such an extent with the shouts and applause of the mob, that it

would spread all over and as far as the end of the world. And it is quite

at all a miracle, as wherever such a show would be performed, wiping

the tears and misery of that poor aggrieved people, and those

wrongfully ill-fated/ wrongfully sentenced to jail terms /, would find

their freedom and take shelter, in a complete absence of their concerns

in the bosom of Your Royal Majesty;

and why not other citizens, too, from other social layers, would

find their rescue by having recourse to that Holy Anchor; by slowly

steering their ship they shall eventually discover the very coveted port

and the most peaceful place to drop anchor. So, that way the human

condition and whatever other things recover, providing for everything

that is linked together, keeping with much care both the general and

particular things, even the state budget He fortunately constantly

keeping, it is very usual He being saluted, acclaimed with one voice,

fully deserving, that You – ah, You August, are KING and FATHER OF

OUR HOMELAND (Pater Patrie). Whereas this Giant Man, no doubt

by right, is surrounded in praises, everywhere and in the battlefield too

He is loaded with praises both by the defeated and the winners, be they

old or in their primes, so the praises I am bringing Him are at all

insignificant over the highest esteem I should show Him. Then, why

shouldn’t we say it openly: Your Majesty is nearby the Divinity, no

doubt by right, since, as we can see, even on this small occasion – this

book printing – He has involved. You really are the embodiment of the

Great God who is believed cannot be deviated by any imperfections of

the common people, or maybe insignificantly at all, since He gets by

Himself higher and higher by any means possible. Look, Your Royal

Highness, Your forehead clear at this all-modest homage, the books,

not at all bulky, they lay down before You, with many bows, at the

shrine of Your Majesty. For this little book I am grateful first of all to

Your Royal Majesty and then to those devoted to me, who have

supported its publishing, headed by Your Highness: may You in the

future too be equally inclined to the requests, hopes and trust of those

resorting to the generosity of Your Highness like to an all-mighty God

of our dear Homeland, and of the whole Globe and may we have You

well and happy as long as possible from now on, to the comfort of

those needing Your Majesty! Most festive be that day and hold on with

our descendants too, a day in which the heavens sent us that most

brilliant star, a star most blessed, bringing with it on earth the goodness

of a happy destiny – from skies they should send it again to deliver us

from all evils. Why not, I would like the Muses would command my

lips break silence and make a poem accompanied on the lyre, through

the voice of which, in immaculate wishes, it would meet with the

approval of others and at the same time I would be rewarded with

applause and raised higher.

CAROLUS, You, King of the North, glory of the Earth,

adornment of the world, most great conqueror,

Whom arts are singing, the virtues raising Him to the stars:

Justice, isn’t it the first praise? Isn’t the knotty staff

Hercules’ works, which all nations honour, with one voice:

Among the first nations, that of the Svions was by You, with

armed hand, defeated

And how ever other peoples clambered on the walls.

And that way this Kingdom has been in no time turned into ruin.

For that was not our job?

To violently slam its body and joints.

Tell me you Muses, who did enlarge his country, its boundaries,

through laws,

Tell me, who was the first to choke the terrible fires of the cruel


He was who choked them; He alone rebuilt it all in a moment.

This way glorious CAROLUS has raised above all, as He gave

many people back their eternal life.

Through His grand Soul, This way also His CONCORD reign,

imposing was,

The PIETY blossoms, the JUSTICE – mother of equality;

And may the old CURIA plentifully shine in

Senate’s garment. The citizens assembly to honour King Carolus

in all respects,

He, who, having struck out the old criminal laws, new penalties

set up, more just than others;

He, thinking by right that laws cannot remain the same for ever,

More fair laws He laid. According to Him, CAROLUS, the LAW

is the holiest thing in the world.

HE, CAROLUS, all righteous and glorious, outstrips Apollo.

Long live Augustus, through Him alone all that’s good in our

country is saved and prospers; may its powers soar, may it be safe

from evil, as only this way it could aspire to summits;

His Queen – mother, who’s she – indeed Hedwig, born from noble

blood, in a northern family.

Illustrious in the world, apart at all. Long live!

She, who embodies the GREAT LOVE for the people!

May she have only joys now and for ever!

Long live and blossom UDALRICA, the Queen-wife

And the greatest mistress in the world,

Virtue and honour model of heaven’s spirits!

May also the royal offspring blossom, worthiest of the Kingdom!

CAROLUS, first of all, whose sceptre so peaceful will stay

After He great wars carried, and shields in heavens would be left.

Remaining on the family destined, descendants; among them His grandsons count,

With similar destinies, of the same magnificence.

May He always enjoy only GOOD things,

May it be flinched by neither the things’ limits nor the centuries!

These all, my gracious Muse they wish you,

Singing your virtues on notes popped from their hearts.

Do accept, kind KING, accept, You, GLORY OF THE KINGS,

Accept these words born in my burning soul;

And, wherever I am, my words are singing You

On notes arranged with care, You raising, singing You, as better as can do,

Crawling on earth like a thin thread

And falling down to Your feet, the feet of YOUR SACRED


With a highly devoted faith

And too obedient as long as I’ll be living


Twenty-two years elapsed since, by a public vote, I was admitted the

first in the Academy, to study the law sciences. As for my very spirit,

my endeavour and thinking placed at the service of those sciences, I

leave them to the judgement of those then admitting me among the

students, and giving me thereafter frequent opportunities to hear their


During all this time I have committed to the paper, with great care, not

somehow neglectful, like others do – not corrupt, like others use to,

a great deal of those I’ve noted with my own hand during the

University lectures. The only impediment encountered, should I

confess and state it sincerely, it was that of making a selection of the

many elements heard at the lectures; it was difficult for me to make a

decision, the more that, during all that time, the number of manuscripts

in question has grown, and in some cases, due to some ignorant

transcribers, certain facts have been wrongly changed, not rarely

unjustified omissions and additions being operated. Finally, our task

was to carefully plan how should we move among that many winding

paths, recognise our errors and, in consequence thereof, eliminate

them. This is why I do not shrink from saying it, during those study

years as a young magistrate, all that memorable dates have been well

forged, more faithfully. Yet I do not doubt, there are certain people to

consider what I have done less than correct, due to the fact that

speaking about the beginning of laws with the Getae, I am referring in

the first place to SAMOLSE (as this being the proper spelling of his

name); they strongly believing that our erudite people would have

inspired from the Greek letters, but the Getic letters, already invented

and used then, the Greeks did not take from us, according to our

ancient history and our wise men skilled in old writers’ literature, by

such kind of persons, they wouldn’t be deemed as such; we would not

give a dime for such persons, and the judgement of the posterity would

condemn them – and they deserve to be condemned unanimously; this,

because about SAMOLSE’s style (thus, the Getic writing pre-existed

the Greek one) we have in evidence the authority of certain ancient

historians writing down everything in every clearness. On that very

occasion I would dare to prove that putting side by side the ancient

laws of the fatherland and the Attic ones, we may find out a clear

superiority over those of Athens, since at the beginning of the law, the

lawgiver’s finger had to be put on with great care, and did so before

those gathered for such purpose (so, it was some kind of a parliament T.’s N.)

So it was clear for everybody that any legalisations of deeds could not

take place unless both parties were attending. Besides, we have in

evidence a number of literary monuments having a completely

overwhelming convincing force, attesting the Greek having taken from

the Goth (Geta), in every particular, the essential element of the Athenian

legislation, since words and fact as well are presented to and laid before

us everywhere in detail, yet also on the whole and, if I keep silence,

everything else speaks. But I have already passed beyond the stage of

those small songs I have encircled myself in times of leisure, of a

minimum importance; besides, save for the things that formerly, being

actuated by the importance of the moment, it appeared to have

investigated long time a separate volume. Besides, Great Grotius asserts,

quite justified, the Persian language itself having its origins in the Getic

vocabula; of such I did not doubt at all in asserting it otherwise than

something very important, adding at the same time Arabic and Turkish,

which however in our days, as I can see, use Latin letters, as determined

in the printing shop, with the letters I have prescribed. May Heaven let

come a time when all those and other like them will be published more

accurately, even with same letters and fonts, in which they have been

expressed in ancient times. Until then, affable reader, accept open

minded those, as they are; should I obtain your acceptance, it would be

for me an occasion for joy and satisfaction. As for the wrong ones, that

would be for them a thesaurus, in order for the sad ones to always have

occasion to amuse themselves, and those unworthy would hardly

deserve a thing. To the latter I only have to say: the cedar and marble

manners of Vossius (Gerhardus Josephus, German scientist, 1577-1640),

(p. 112), have guided me, through the following most respectable words:

“… therefore, in order for the prophecies (divine predictions) to be

transmitted with the sense they have been received before, should

comply with certain requirements. As for the other data in Latin, I deem

it has been sufficiently discussed, as all words to be found in the quoted

passage read. What could really be wished inside that treatise would be

the reasons about which, for the sake of the Posterity I have avoided to

speak of.



§1. .aµ….., SAMOLSES in our scrolls. To him are related the

beginnings of the paternal laws and the defence of that truth. Who is he

and where comes from? He belongs to the Getae, who are the same

with Goths and Scythians.

§2. The ones being called Getae are also

called SVEONES.

§3. Some deny they are called Svions from Svidur:

their argument can easily be overthrown.

§4. Before ODIN, there is no

reference of that word in the writings of the old ones.

§5. Sueons’

power extended once all over.

§6. Whether the country is called Svia

from Svidia, a region apart from Goths’ land. Why Svidia?

§7. Why the

inhabitants are not called rather Gautae than Svions from Odin:

SVIFDAGR was born to Odin The Svif.

§8 It is quite ridiculous

believing that the name of SUEONIA could be related to the place and

forest (VEDEN?), idem from ZWEI REICHE (two empires / a double


§9. SVIPIOD has a different meaning, while the name of

Svions, who are also called Ingueones or Ingevones (in both cases they

are spelt correctly); it is the same name with Ingi, Ingve and


§10. Those who have been called Scythians, thereafter

called Sueons (Sueones). Where does the name of Scythians come

from? For they come from the Elysium Fields, hence their name.

§11.Who are the Hyperboreans? So do the foreign writers call them. Where

comes the name of O….. (Oghiughie). The earliest authors mean by t

hat word the trajectory of terrestrial days.

§12. Once in our homeland,

heredity was considered by the number of bows and arrows. What is

the meaning of ARS and ARSDOBOLKAR in the earliest legislation


§13. The number twelve, of arrows, was deemed by the ancient

peoples to be ordained by the gods; the number of nine days also had

the same interpretation. §14. The Gothic SKUTA matches the Latin

verb sagittare (“to take very well aim with an arrow”).

§1. The waxed tablets together with the other manuscripts, where they

talk about the origin of paternal (national) laws, they are referring to

SAMOLSE. It is not known quite exactly about him whether he was a

real man and when he was born. However, most authors assert, with

greatest levity, that he was born somewhere in the Thracian Land.

About that time, the Getae were living there, “T.e…. a.d.e..tat.. .a.

d..a..tat.. ” (Hdt., IV, XCIII, to the end), that is “the most brave

and pious of the Thracians”, in Herodotus’ words. Among the

praiseworthy virtues, no doubt by right, that of undefeated is added,

with which Procopius (IV, Hist. Goth., 419) has adorned the Goths.

The ones who in Thrace were called Getae, later in Procopius’ (a

Greek historian that died in 562 AD) time were called Goths and in

older times they were called Scythians. Such authors we owe a due

trust, since they are among the best ones; beside them, through his

ancient dignity and authority, brilliant Messenius imposed, too

(Foreword to a versified edition of the laws, signed Ragvaldus) who, in

a few words, has shown with so much clarity and perspicacity that the

first laws of the Svions and Goths (Getae) have been made up by

Samolse. In order for such conclusion to necessarily be most correct,

he clothed it with the word infallible. Subsidiary, if needed anymore,

opinions have thereafter recorded, of certain brilliant scholars like

BOXHORNIUS (Hist., VII, in the year 101), LOCCENIUS (Antiquit.

Sveog., lib. I, chap.1), SCHERINGHAM (De orig. Angl., chap.IX, X. XI), HACHENBERGIUS (De orig. Sved., §XII, ff.), IACOB GISLON

(in foreword and Chron. p.m.5 to the end) and in however other

passages where the same opinion on the Getae, Goths and Scythians

based on different proofs also in the mind of doctrine disciplines

writers, such writers being among the most enlightened: that truth is

perfectly confirmed by uncounted evidence. It is worthy retaining that

unique truth, namely the Getae and the Goths were one and the same

people and they were also called with the name of Scythians (Joh.

Magn. Hist., S. 4, lib. I, chap.IV, f.f. Schol. Antiq. In Adam N. LXXXVII and authors next chapter)

§2. Therefore, they are called GETAE, GOTHONES, GOTHINI,


with the natives, attrâ from GA, GE, which is the same thing with

GAU, GO, JO, GIO, GOJA, i.e. TERRA from the verb GIETA,

meaning to give birth, develop, spread open-handed (others have a

quite different opinion, namely their names would come from GAUT

or ATTYS, the son, loved by Cybele, of the Sangarius river).


come from Attys, more recently; who is also called ODIN, SVIDUR,


from SVIDIA, meaning to devastate through fires. The following add,



WALGAUTUR, an assembly of administrative (business) names,

which were en vogue at that time, designating both courage and

wiseness and a charming finesse in every victorious people; a

destruction of enemies’ fields, fires, sieges, has been also called havoc,


Why not also Thràsàr (meaning more vulnerable to cruelty of

cutting and burning, not rarely attacked to be publicly exposed). That is

yet also name and cult object of the ancestor Attys through most

useless games (caprices) and witchcraft; after that superstitions have

invaded him, as we learn from the Eddic monuments (it is about two

collections of mythological and legendary poems of ancient

Scandinavian peoples, T.’s N.) at the location and with the inhabitants

SVITHI-OD, SVI-THOD, it is transmitted to us that a new and

perpetual name has been given from itself, that just mentioned.

§3. They are not even experts in old literary works that would deny

such designation of ODIN. At first, for grammar reasons, his name

should have been spelt that way, as coming from SVIDRIR,

SVIDRISTHIOD and not SVITHIOD; those are some kind of

sophisms, like some enigma that nobody can clear up. Yet the mass of

scholars is too big for their boots, looking for vain glory, like our own

ignoramuses, out of vanity, consider them admirable. Since not so

much SVIDRIS, but at the same time under other flexional titles of

names, Odin can be recognised, as already set forth above. In the case

of such words in disorder it is always more clear if not expressed but in

the case of a multitude of expressions relating to such word. Thus it is

reasonable from GAUT or GAUTUR – GAUTLAND, from SIGI or



from SKIOLDUR -SKIOLDUNGAR, and so we may

find, of that type, with the thousands, where the second case, not

clearly, but precisely, towards they incline, is to be preferred. See also

moreover other historical documents -Thorstiens viikings soanr

saugu (chap.I), where just the following words can be read: pad eru

Kallader Alfheimar, er Alfur Konungar ried fyri. Afheimo from the king

name of Alfo. What does it mean? That the assailant, in his opinion,

would need rather to prove an alibi; for a similar reason, the word

SVITHIOD popularly reads SVEON and moreover, and the whole

matter, in itself, in such a manner it is said, that it can be carried

through with a sword only.

§4. Then, that ODIN word seems to be much older than his coming

into the world. Here it is, on what rely those claiming such a thing:

sure thing is that that name has never been mentioned before Odin

would appear, neither by foreign writers, nor by the native ones. They

endeavour to impose the contrary with ability and through trifles, as

resulting from the Eddic writings. that such is the state of things, As so

it is in the foreword of the Eddic writings, where, in both books

written with great care, they call DROTZET of the High Praetorian

Tribunal, the heroine of the all-heavenly and companion, master,

GREAT GABRIEL of Gardie, whom the Academy in Uppsala has

since long: “… thadan for Othin i Svithiod, thar var sa Kongur er

Gylsi het: oc er han fretti til Asia manna er Aesir voru Kalladir, for

han i moti theim, oc baud seim i fit riki en fatimi fylgdi ferd theirra.

Hwar sem their dvol thust i londum, ja thar par ar oc trutho men

artheir voru theßradandr thui ar rikis menn sa tha olika flestum

mannum othrum at segurd oc vitj. Thar thotti Othin sagrit vellir, oc

Landzkostir godur, oc Kaus fier thar Vorgarstadt sem nu heitir Sigtun.”

Odin left there for Sveonia, the king of which was Gylso. At him

arrived the fame of the Asians’ names, which one called AESIR who,

upon his throne mounting, invited them all: they complied with the

invitation without delay. Wherever your eyes may have looked, you

only could see but thriving crops, as everywhere peace was flourishing,

among the local people of good faith, there were accepted with them

those things that were well thought-out, while for others, the science

and the excellence of the form were more alluring. Odin, where he saw

the crop thriving and the soil being fertile, chose a location for the

stronghold, which the local people call now Sigtuna, thadan, says the

author, for Othin et Svithiod. From there, Odin came to Sueonia, as it is

called today. With such name does it show off, but, except that, it was

called before Svithiod as it is confirmed by the Eddic writings, as

printed by the most deliberated Ressenius, in question being an edition

resulted from a collating of a few more copies: Efftr thad for han

nordut that sein nu heiter. Words that are completely the same, the

Danish interpret assures us; it also tallies with the Latin version of the

Icelander Olaus Magnus of 1629. Therefore, it is in question the same

place that is called now Svithiod, that is Svecia. Of the same opinion

also is Stephanus The Icelander Olaus when in 1646, he proves, the

adorned interpretation of Haunia. However, about that and many other

words, I deem as useless appealing to more precepts than it has been

done before – it’s simple enough.

§5. Stress is being laid on the same issue: it is, undoubtedly,

astonishing why resorting to other regions, the names of which did not

come from the same name, on the contrary, their names read with

those names with which they have remained since long. As it is quite

easy for such an objection to be rejected. If in that passage of the

Eddic writings so it was understood to be reproduced, where, in clear

words, it is proved as more suitable that the reign of Sueonia should

begin with Odin and where, after so many errors a reliable place can be

finally set and, to the f?ted person’s fame, it can still be invested with

monumental names, which can be legally transmitted to the

descendants. To conclude, by the name of Svithiod it was meant all that

was in sight in the north; the other reigns were called at other times

tractus (“vast country”), it meaning a reunion of lands of a very vast

empire – at the level of the universe. In fact, it was replaced by the old

ones with Manheim, Gudheim, Alsheim, Jotnaheim or Risaland /

Vanheim, oc oll thau titi thar til halda (every reign that had to be

haunted by the majesty of Sueonic Empire, as clearly asserted by

Snorrus, accord. to Snorrus, in the version of Johannes Martinus,

Slangerup p.1). The book, published in 1594, gives us the following

information: “Norden for palude Maeoti ot swarte hass/ kalde de paa

gammel Norske Svithiode. Det nafn haswe de paa alle diße kalde land

som ligge mod norden/ oc erre somme af diße land öde fot fraast oc

snee” (as author mistranslated the Gothic text in Latin, I dare to

translate it, conveying in fact the essence: “Svithiod land being located

north of Azov Sea, just in its most northern point, it has a very severe

climate, the region being exhausted by frosty weather and snow”, T.’s

N.) Let’s add to that source also Iordanes, the chapters (De Getarum

sive Gothorum origin et rebus gestis, IV and V) in which we can

find very clearly and well substantiated, from where and how arrived

there for the first time the Goths (the Getae), that they have settled in

Scythia, next to Black Sea and he describes already a number of

settlements of theirs; from the notes of other writers, cited by Nicolaus

Ragvaldus, in his speech (Herod., lib. IV), never praised enough. And

it is in question not only the native writers, but to such also add some

of other nations, in the words of whose we should trust with the power

of truth comprised in them, having the strictness of purely scientific

works: these are Herodotus (chap.IV), Xenophon (chap.11,

Memoriale), Plato (Timaeus and Kritias) and many others nearer,

among which one rises above all. This is Cl. Olaus Rudbeck (Atlant.,

chap.VII, §VIII).

Let’s go back however to Lucan, chap.II of De bello civili, from which

we learn that our ancestors have roamed Europe, Egypt and Etruria and

“have reached with their boats also Scythia Minor, at Lacus Maeotis, a

black swamp full of all kinds of peoples.”

§6. So, in vain some endeavour to convince us that Svialand, the

Sveonia region apart from Gothia, derives from Svidia, which means

“to ravage”, “to burn.” Also, to destroy through iron and fire villages

and forests, as in spite of the fact that the field, attacked inside, was,

according to the custom, seeded and harrowed, everything was turned

into graves, nothing having been sifted from the crop. The first to come

to these lands called Sviar, which cannot yet be proved by any written

document, worthy of being noticed.

§7. Although the name came into common use, yet the people wander

why not GAUTA would rather be called the inhabitants, instead of

SVIONES from Odin, as many centuries before the emergence of

Odin, such name was given to those populations, like I set forth above

and this historical truth can be easily proved through different peoples’

and nations’ history. Why then tarrying about this one? If however

would anyone doubt the legend of the nomenclature, then one

argument would suffice: why did not that ethnic group usurp that name

before Odin. Lang fedgatal yet does not doubt that ethnic group having

borrowed its name from Odin’ son, called Svifdage.

§8. From all these considerations is clearly resulting that somebody is

nevertheless asserting that Sueonia can be inferred from Veden’ lake

and forest (“se lacu et veden sylva”) – words mentioned above – an

opinion which one could rather wonder about than reject. No less valid

an opinion would be, that it would come from zwei Reiche (two

reigns/empires), ideas about which Messenius claimed (Spe. Suec. et

Goth, chap.VIII) they “render callous their errors by right and in fact.”

§9. From all stated above, it clearly results how much the concept of

svithiod, I mean Sueons’ power or empire had to “suffer.” To thwart

such a saying‚ a man (now passed away to join the happy ones) not a

profane in homeland and ancient history, comes with an argument

supporting the Sueons, Goths (Getae) and Odin; upon returning to the

concept of Scandia everything getting mixed: undoubtedly Svealand is

something different from Svearik or Sviavelldi, as moreover, other

literary monuments of our ancestors, there are also homeland laws,

under which it is asserted, in clear words, the following development:

“Swerikis Rzjke a aff Hedhna Warld samankomit/af Swealand oc

Götha”, chap.1 main Konungz Valter, e.e. (“The Kingdom of Sveonia,

according to the last memory of the profane religion, has coagulated

from the Sveonic and Gothic regions”). Same are the things in the case

of the proper name of Svithiod instead of Svealand that clearly differs

from GOTHALAND. accord. to the 1egend of Vilkina (p. d. 76):

“Vilkini kunungr eignadist med rikinu, oc hernadi thad land er kallad

var Vilkinaland en thad heitir nu Svithiod oc Gautland, oc alt

Sviavelldi, Skaney, Sialand, Jutland, Vinland, oc oll thau riki er par til

halda.” (“King Vilkinus, by the force of weapons, appropriated the

Kingdom of Vilkinaland, which is today made out of Sveonia, Gothia,

Scania, Selandia, Jutia, Vinlandia (Vandalsa) and all regions bounding

that empire”). Thus, to spade a pikestaff, Svithiod differs from

Gautland and Sviavelldi. And let’s us rely on the same history: af heiti

ens, fyrsta haufdingia tekr hans riki‚ nafn, oc su thiod er han stiornar

(from the name of its first prince the kingdom took its name, and not

from the people the prince reigned over. It is entirely worthy being

trusted, according to what is said above. So, from Ingve, or Inge comes

the word Sueones and Ingveones. Ingveones, according to Plinius (lib.

IV, C. XIII), and even Tacitus (De mor. Germ., chap.12); yet they do

not call by something obscure or hidden, but even by something more

open and clear, I mean they are those citizens who have been under the

domination and authority of the Ingons. Ingi or Ingve, Inge or

Ingemunder designate one and the same thing, as we can read in most

documents dedicated to such name.

§10. But they also called Scythians, which thereafter called

Sueoni, accord. to an old manuscript titled Chronicon. As Iaphet dre

komne Skyter oc Geter, som langt epter Kalladis Gother / oc nu

Swenske. (“Scythians and Getae were born to Iaphet who later, after

the Goths, called also Sveons.”) But in no hand written laws collection

that order is wrongly written. Even Isidorus (the beginning of that

Chronicle and the next chapter) begins his chronicle as follows: the

reign of the Goths (undoubtedly it reads Getae’s – T.’s N.) is the

oldest, as it was born from the reign of the Scythians. Scythians truly

are brilliant archers, they raising a lot above other nations, as that kind

of weapons was specifically proper to them – just for that reason

Herodotus (IV, 27) called them ARIMASPOI, “the ones who pointed

at very well with the arrow” (although the legend says the Arimasps

had one eye only, T.’s N.); they were mounted archers (.pp.t…ta.,

Thuc. 11, 139); Laurentius Valla gave the same interpretation that later

was also recognised by Henricus Stephanus. Moreover, Herodotus (I,

73) called that skill of wielding the bow and arrows te… t.. t…., i.e. “the art of pointing at with arrows”, and Xenophon (On Socrates’

acts and words, I, III, the Latin translator being Cardinal Nicenus),

where it is said that, unlikely other nations, the Scythians and

Thracians are naturally gifted with that net superiority in wielding a

bow and arrows. Yet, unlikely the Spartans, who wield a sword and

shield, the Scythians and Thracians do not dare to also conversely

handle them, Spartans refuse to fight the first using their weapons bow

and arrows. Lucan (Lib. III) also calls the Gelons sagittiferi volucres, i.e. “from the

hands of which the arrows fly like birds”, and the Gelons are a

Scythian nation. As Lucan (chap.II) claims, the Masagets are Scythian

too, like the Gelons occurring about the Maeotis Lake, i.e. the Azov

Sea, driving Scythian wagons or riding horses that flew like birds, like

arrows. Through the art of wielding the bow and arrows our ancestors

have stood out from other peoples, as our national history confirms it

to us. Since they knew how to send an arrow with a perfect precision,

they went to war or fights, their bodies bare, to show the enemy how

expert are they in pointing at by piercing with their arrows exactly the

targeted point. For their skill in wielding the bow and arrows e.g.

Magn. Sigurdar. Sigurdar., Magnusa Barfots and the legend of Olof

Trygfars (Flot. Lb., III, chap.8) and many other passages. So, the

Scythians were among the first of our ancestors. The handling of the

bow and arrows with the Scythians was learned since the early

childhood; Florus (Lib. III, chap.VIII) recounts that a child would

refuse the food given by his mother until she did not show him,

through her self example, how is she hit by arrows. All their hopes

were those arrows, as Tacitus (De mor. Germ., to the end) recounts.

They roamed with their herds, herds of horses, goats and sheep through

forests and untilted deserts, hence they were called Nomads,

Shepherds, by Homer, Strabo and, among others, also by Silius (I, III).

They did not have any houses, living in wagons, roaming over the

plains, and wandering as they did, they always had around the penates.

Strabo locates them to the north, where the north wind blows, and

Diodorus Siculus (Bibl. Hist., chap. p.m. 209) recounts that they were

living on an island called Basilea out of which, in bad weather, came

out a kind of very bright amber, which could not be found in any other

part of the world: this was also called electrum. Urania, daughter of the

skies, upon her father’s death, accepted to reign over Basilea and

afterwards gave birth to d.a d….. t.. ßas..e.a., the devisees of

the reign, Hyperions (Diod. Sic., Bibl. Hist., chap.III, chap.7, 9, 10, 13

and 14). Solinus adds that from the islands inhabited by the Germans,

Scandinavia is the biggest and nothing in that island is more valuable

than the glassware that offers both the crystal, yet also the amber,

which the Germans call with a native word GLAESUM (STICLA).

Plinius calls it glassware (XXVII, 1, 2).

And just in our Sveonia, in the region of Helsingia, there was such a

valley called ELYSIA [(the valley of glass = Glysisdal, Elysisdal,

LIUSDAL), according to Ovid, Champs-Elysees according to Virgil,

Glysis hed, Elysis hed, i.e. LIUSHED] (See also Tacitus, De mor.

Germ., XLV; Tibull., I, 3, In Messal.) According to illustrious D.

Gustavus Rosenhanus, who in 1658 chaired that province, he talked

me about the places where the merchandise was exported from, like

coming from the Elyzeens and Naharvals,who formerly would have

inhabited those lands; Tacitus (De mor. Germ., XLIII) recounts about

the Manimos [Manheimos] Elyzieni and Naharvali. Quoting Plutarch

who, in his turn quotes Homer, asserts that in the Champs-Elysees is

the end of the Earth, since there the shadow becomes visible putting an

end to the Globe; there, where the light is prevented, and the

descending sun just doubles the growing shadows, Radamantes’

kingdom, i.e. the Inferno begins.

Why from the Gothic lysa, and this, in its turn, from lius, liusis or

lysis? Its origin is unclear, since in the summer those fields, as their

name tells, are always seen to be bright; hence poets invented the

wording “at the happy places of the righteous people”, “in the happy

islands”, “where neither the winds blow nor the clouds drop their rain”

and “the sky is always clear and laughs with a generously spread light”

(Lucret., De rerum natura, chap.III, about the beginning) or in

Horatius, Epoda XVI:

“The Planetary Ocean leaves us, we are surrounded by fields

we arrive at the happiest fields, at rich islands:

look, the field unploughed for so many years is being given back to us –

Ceres gives it us now flourishing and loaded with grape clusters.

the olive trees pull out their buds and every tree is adorned with buds;

the resin springs out of the high mountain oaks

and trickles through the bark down to earth.

There come from itself directly in the chapel’s censer …”

(See also the comments of Acronius Porphyrionus of Rotterdam, as

well as of the others concerning the ode in question). Other versions

concerning the origin of that region’s name may also be heard; among

them, the Plato’s (Gorgias, p.m. 370 ff.) Virgil, for instance, sets

against Champs-Elysees, Lacus Stygias (where Plouton, the “god” of

the Inferno rules, T.’s N.), nigra Tartara, a place reserved after death

those wrongdoers, unfaithful, where people shiver with cold (See also

Hesiod, Theogonia, see 682, 721, 736 and Plato, Phaedron, p. 517 ff.)

Both Stygii lacus, and Seneca’s Stygiae shadow, come from the Gothic

STYG. The verb is styggias formidare (“to be afraid of the styg”);

many other words have hence formed in our language. In Greek there

is the verb s..e., having the same meaning, although yet the

interpreters doubt its Greek origin (I deem it would rather refer to

certain old Romanian words: 1. Strig? = “grey coloured owl with

orange eyes, also meaning lady vampire, witch”, as well as 2. Strigoi,

T.’s N.) (see also Virgil, Aeneis, p. 237 and 251). For good reason even

the question is put, just where it has been called by the ancient people

GLESARIA after: no doubt it comes from the verb GLA, meaning “to

shine”, “to glow”, and hence GLEA, GLIA, GLOA, GLIOSA and

LYSA = “to lighten” (It is not excluded it might be linked to the old

Romanian GLIE, “ploughed land” and GAIA / GEIA / GE, “mother

land” and of course the Greek must have taken it from us and not

conversely, as it is too the case of wallach – from German, meaning

“castrated horse”, as it is the case too of the West Falls (Westfalen) and

the East (Ostfalen) and the Egyptian and Indian fellah, all those nations

whose names are related to the land cultivation, agriculture, having

their origin in the traditional word Valach, the oldest the Romanian

ethnic group attested until now, accord. to Homer, Iliad, II, 739, T.’s

N.) Since it is not like the case of the Latin Aquilo,-onis (“north

wind”), Boreas in Greek, which asserts Aulus Gellius with serenity (II,

22) must have been formed from boatus, meaning “bellow” (’ap. t..

ß…), while some erudite men, who devoted themselves long ago to

the letters and antiques, cannot approve of such an etymological

explanation, believable among babies only.

§11. That is too the case of the toponym BASILIA mentioned by

Pytheas of Marseille (a famous navigator and geographer of the 4th

century BC, T.’s N.) as the seat of the royal Scythians: ßas..e.o .

meaning quite “kingly”, “royal” (Plin. XXXVII, II). I call as a witness

just Herodotus (IV, 56) in a passage where Gerrhos clearly recounts on

the county of nomad Scythians and that of royal Scythians (“tó. te

t.. ..µad.. …… .a. t.. t.. ßas…… S…e..”). Lacus

Maeotis (Azov Sea, T.’s N.) too is inhabited by the Royal Scythians

and the Sauromatians (“.a..t.., S…a. te t… ßas……. .a. Sa…µata.”). This is how far the Sveons’ Empire

stretched once, as I already said here above (that is also perfectly valid

for the Geto-Dacians, who have lived for centuries, if not even

millenniums, mixed with Germanic peoples, both in the Scandinavian

Peninsula, and in the southern Russia, T.’s N.) Those Scythians who

lived in Asia, it is due to call them Nomads (S…a. t… ..µada.,

Hdt. I, 73). On the same island – BASILIA – the old ones called it

BALTHIA from BALDUR or Apollo or from the bows and belts

(baltheis) which the Scythians used, a respect in which it is worth

mentioning Herodotus (IV, 11, 19 and 50, VI. 74), where he some

times speaks about the bow, and other times about Hercules The Baltic

(centurion) and not only about Scytha as Hercules’ son, after whom

the Kings Scythian have been called (Plin., 1.chap., Hdt., IV, 8, IX,

10). Apollo himself is called by Virgil The Bow Carrier (Verg., Aen.

III). And in the 5th book of the same Aeneid says it explicitly: “Be it

now allowed us to explain how it came from the belt to the word Baltic

(belte) Sea, as it appears in ancient words. The Scythians called Royal,

were also called Hyperborean4, and their seat was in the Hyperborean

island, Yswer Norden, in Greek ‘.pe., poetic super in Latin, Yser with

the Goths and Sveons, letters p and s are used alternately, either instead

of the other. „Same way could also be explained SCAN, nowadays

SKAN / SKANE, Scania being called in ancient times Scandia. As

Scandia, Scanau, Scanorum sive Scandorum island (Scans’ or Scanzs’

Islans), a name under which we have yet another region located

beyond the other regions, getting in touch with the Aquilone (the north

wind). That is why Lucan mentions them as dwelling in a region

located under the Polar Circle or Hyperborean Ursa (De bell. Civil., V,

p. m. 121), and Cicero, quoting from Aratus’ poetry, he says:

“consequently come the Northern” (De nat. deorum, II, p.m. 47);

Seneca calls the North Pole, by the synechdoche Ursas: the icy wagon

of the Hyperborean Ursa (Med. Act., II, cor. V, see 315).

In ancient times, our ancestors called it Scandia, it being confirmed,

among other writings, by the chronicles inclusively. So, in laws

fragments, among the oldest are also those prescribed the Sveons and

the Goths in 1375, where Sveonia is called


Bibl. Hist., p.m. 91 …) From the tradition of the old ones, as Diodorus

shows it, so it has been found to be graphically represented. The

inhabitants of that island have been called by the ancient peoples

Hyperboreans; all the more it is trustworthy, as such judgement is

placed in the beginning of the book. The Hyperboreans have been

called after the adverb ‘.pe., “over”, “beyond” and …ea. , “North

wind”, therefore the ones who live beyond the whipping north wind

(Plin., VI. 1 3), and in his scholar, Adamus (p.m. 149, 111, 83): “the

Danes, the Sveons and the Normans, as well as the other Scythian

peoples have been called by the Romans, Hyperboreans; those Marcian

loaded with praises of all kinds.”

The Greek writers (among which Diodorus Siculus, Lib. III, p.m. 132)

and Plutarch, De facie in orbe Lunae, p. m. 941), called them western,

Atlantic, and Hyperborean populations; Tacitus (De Mor. Germ.,

CXLV) recounts: “beyond the Svions there is but a tranquil sea, almost

still, surrounding and enclosing the Globe.” Among all the other

Scythians, the Hyperboreans were some very special people, as

RUDBECKIUS emphasises it.

§12. In our laws, both older and more recent, there are not only the

arrows mentioned, but also always the bow and the arrows are

mentioned together. In inheritance matters, where a succession was to

be decided, the one of the sons was deemed more fortunate and hence

more powerful at wars, which inherits twelve bows: that one was to be

called, in fact, a Scythian. And, as the codices prove, in accord with all

the other regulations, he had the title of agent through heredity –

ARFDABOLKER, ARF meaning both “arrow”, and “bow.” Since an

estate was regarded depending on the number of bows and arrows, a

custom transmitted also to our Getae ancestors descending from the

Scythians, the true Scythians were only deemed to be those possessing

three times twelve bows (“thre tölptir SKUTHA stràng ok bogha”), and

by the word ARF it is meant both “arrow”, and “bow.” That way of

judging was also reflected in the heredity title – the more the number of

bows and arrows a son inherited, the more appreciated he was in the

battlefield; here he is, instituted in the context of a hunting: “If

someone, in his own forest, therefore, in his own hunting ground, upon

having cornered a beast, feels exhausted and wants to have some rest,

so discontinuing the hunting, sends on the beasts trail a bow or an

arrow; and if that beast is subsequently killed by others, those due is

the skin, and that who was the first to shoot an arrow is due the rest of

the beast; and should a dispute arise, then they would resort to an

arbitration by good faith men (I suspect it isn’t meant a proceedings in

court, yet instead a hunters’ association assigned to settle such

differences T.’s N.), thus everything is to be settled with an elegance

that characterises us” (I wonder if that is neither the ontologicalgnoseological

root of an old Romanian say “To sell the skin of a bear

in the woods”?, T.’s N.)

§13. I have said that, in our laws, by the word ARF it is meant not only

an “arrow”, yet also a “bow”, which is called too ARMBORST. The

wording ARMBORST ATARS BRESTER has the meaning “the arrow is

shot with a bow.”

In our laws, both old and recent, it is only mentioned as weapons the

bow and arrows, hence their name of Scythians. According to

information supplied by Kongbr (chap.XXIX of Codex Magni Erici

and c. XXIV of the general law (Civil Code) of King Christoph), the

warriors wore twelve arrows each, to match the number of gods,

accord. to Virg. (Georg., I, p. 41): “That is why over the endless earth

reigns the sun gilded by those twelve stars of the world.”; in Homer

(Iliad. I, p. 2, see 3) we find the digit 9 to be used: “for nine long days

the arrows of Zeus flew in the army.”

§14. From the foregoing quoted passages, as well as from other

sources, it could be seen that Skyta meant, in our laws, “to shoot by a

bow and arrow”; it results more clear from VOSSIUS, SCIOPIUS,

CELLARIUS and BORRICHIUS (De variis linguae Latinae

aetatibus: Defensione Vossii adversus Sciopium).



§1. It can be precisely proved with nine solid arguments the terrible

weapons of the Goths/ Getae would have wandered all over the earth,

set out of Scandinavia.

§2. About that truth none of the ancient writers

ever doubt; that thesis is supported too by several colonies spread all

over the world.

§3. According to Jordanes’ confession, if it will be

approved of by everyone, it would be an extra argumentation.

§4. According to Procopius, it isn’t in question as much the Goths, as

especially the Langobards and Vandals.

§5.That fits, his name, very popular, being Langobard by origin, Paulus The Langobard Warnefridi.

To that it is also to be added the authority of a DEXIPPUS,


and of many others.

§6. The old history of the Fatherland comes to an

agreement with the ancient annals; it is just the same with the oldest

Greek writers.

§7. Those come to join the Spanish, too.

§8 As for the

Italics, a debate would prove useless. Why should it take place, so

long as the Scythians are the founders of Italy, too? That truth is

confirmed by a series of very old words, since countless of them are of

Scyhtian origin, as we can tell it very well.

§9 The Gauls or Francs

themselves have come from our Scandia and why not the Trojans, too.

What else it would be meant by TROY if not LAZIUS (Lazio, -orum,

accord. to Plin.,VI.12, is a nation in Colchis; accord. to V. Pârvan,

Getica, 281, 363, 777, as well as the opuscule Dacians in TROY; see

also M. Crisan, Die Lage der antiken Städte Troja und Theben aus

Böotien in der Bronzezeit, T.’s N.)

§10. The land of Amazonia,


these days the honour remained as a permanence of ancient valour and

body strength.

§11. The Britons originate from the Saxons, Angles and


§12 Yet either the Scots don’t know they are descending from

the same stock. There arose firstly the nobility of the whole Europe

from, a truth confirmed by Carolus Quintus.

§13. Even the Germans

were born in Scandinavia.

§14. The Helvets likewise.

§15. Not less the

DANS and neighbouring peoples.

§16. And what is believed about the

Moscow inhabitants, who draw on the source of old Gothic language

(read Getic, T.’s N.)

§17. The Cyprian words tally perfectly with our

ancient lexical rules.

§18. At the time the first settlement of the Goths

(read Getae, T.’s N.) was set up and where the place of those who have

migrated is determined. How many likewise causes have generated

migrations. The first expedition of the Gods, when did it come to live.

§19. A majority of the writers agreed it was that of the Goths (read

Getae, T.’s N.) and they set out of Scandia; there are too few those

denying such opinion over those asserting it. Their reasoning spells as

follows: From Kranzius to Valdenselsium is everyone that thinks


§20. Yet America, as it is called today, our ancestors have

given nothing at all? There are no opposite opinions, on part of

anyone: therefore, more likely the answer is affirmative.

§1. I deem it was enough reasoned to say it clearly that the Goths and

Getae are one and the same (that is the first author I came upon that

made the points in that dilemma, which M. Eliade himself could not

crack, T.’s N.), the most undefeated by their virtue and exploits and

known under other names as well; both the titles and cities and peoples

are common to them; they have subdued many other peoples by siege,

bringing them under their ruling. Why? Like from the sown earth

comes out the green grass, the knotty stem wheat rise lithe from the

surface of the earth, its ears jutted out like from a womb, I wonder if

not likewise have come out too of our Scandinavia, at different times

of the history, a huge host of settlers, who have spread, from that

womb, all over the world, as we may see? Such fact has been affirmed

accordingly, long ago, by Jordanes, naming the same Scandinavia “a

plant”, “a womb of the nations.” Those were indeed the Getae or Goths

who often have roamed, both before and after Christ time, the world all

over and conquered it; in support of the thesis that they have left

Gothia come several proofs. And first of all, that historical truth is

asserted by: I. The monuments of ancient poets, which ours call

SCALLDI; their descriptions rely on such proofs, which, by their

nature, are immutable. They are inferred just from the skies, the sun,

the sea, lakes, springs, rivers, trees, mountains and others; hence the

truth itself can be clearly discerned. II. A full consistency of the

national history with that in the books and annals. Like Olaus Petri (the

author of a Chronicon) overlooked to specify it, I myself don’t know

which way they have been uprooted by others and taken by force to

other places those Goths. Given the circumstances, of a very high

uncertainty, in fact for unknowing the truth, they have been included in

the preamble of the Chronicle in a ridiculous and stupid background.

III. The general consensus of foreign writers, which we hardly can

make out. Why? For almost no place does exist, neither so long nor

hidden, which the Goths’ virtue terror had not filled, at that times. IV.

The laws of the Ostrogoths in Italy, the laws of the Visigoths in Spain;

beside others, even many of the Langobards, Burgunds, Francs,

Alemans and other nations , (V.Aug. Buchn. Saxon. Soll., p.m.43 the

ancient laws of different peoples and stocks), of certain and obvious

origin, as their name show, perceived as such with the eyes and mind.

It adds here also a confirmation by King Carolus IX regarding R.

Christophorus’ Common Law; and not only the Stiernhielmus’

foreword to the West-Gothic laws, which, had not been so edited at the

beginning, but in an intrinsic bundle of ancient laws by Lindenbrogius.

And it must not be overlooked what, in his speech, that Ill. The

Scythian Johannes, dealing eruditely with just those Gothic laws,

asserted with elegance the oldness and military virtue of the Sueons

and the Goths. And what a unparalleled talent to write by hand that

most beautiful opuscule, this is why in very few copies and by so few

it can be ever used: just for that reason I never doubted a moment it

has been transcribed with greatest care. Which, in a seamless

succession of words, shall read: What more do you expect? Olaus

Magnus recounts he would see with his eyes in Italy, in Peruse (a city

in Etruria, located between the lake Trasimene and the river Tibru T.’

s N.) a book of Gothic/Getic laws, written in Gothic characters and,

despite the oldness of that literary, legal monument, as of course many

years elapsed from the time when the Goths lived in Italy, was carefully

preserved and kept by the Perusians. That book is a volume containing

the laws of the Goths, gathering an assembly of laws, which the Suets

and the Goths make use of these days, too, so the same laws have been

discovered, which are effective now, too. Such a consistency of the

contents of the laws led us towards a very certain argument, namely

the Goths, when leaving for Italy, took with them the law codices, too.

The more ample authority of that Olaus has been outlined by the

illustrious man Joannes Metellus Sequanus, the most brilliant historian

of the Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, who both me, and the most noble

man Johannes Rosenhan of the Torp settlement, made public in the

dwelling of the Ruler of Neuland, Carolus Uthenhov, and always

asserted to have browsed through that book, even before the 50s,

together with brothers Joannes and Olaus Magnus. Why? For that

most brilliant Prince, Master Fridericus, Duke of Braunschweig and

Luneburg, has shown that most brilliant and powerful Prince, Master

Carolus and designated as a King of Sweden and my most merciful

Master, with a noble attendance of the most noble people, not how he

has shown before, but the same book, with who he had been in Rome in

Peruse and who he has seen with a special admiration.

As far there was III. Scythian. But several monuments have been seen

– signs of an ancient virtue of our ancestors, the Goths, over Italy and

many other kingdoms on the occasion of their wanderings, with great

significance and in good order drawn up in their travel diaries, as it is

the case too of that brought to light by chance, by the noble young man

Johannes Gabriel Sparvenfelt: it is happily and with cleverness

annotated; thus, thanks to the destiny governing everything, they could

finally be recovered. V. The ancient paternal Laws of all the Goths and,

partially, regarding the West-Gothic expeditions, both that military, in

Greece, and in other places, in a word, there are clearly mentioned the

migration regions. VI. The customs, letters, language, sacred things and

other concerning any relations with the exterior. All these have been

clearly stated at their places. Sure thing, Grotius (Proleg. Hist. Goth.

Melancht. in the Busbeq Chronicle. Ep. IV. Scal. lib. III) stresses the

idea that by the Sea of Azov, even in our days, there are alive the

customs, the language and names of the Goths (i.e. the Getae’s, T.’s N.)

He adds several names in the Persian language five of Scythian places,

places over which Persia had ruled for a long time (so, because they

were inhabited/reigned by the Persians, they got Persian names, as the

case with us with the translation into Slavonic of many toponyms

purely Geto-Dacian, at the time of Slavic peoples invasions, leading to

wrong solutions on part of those linguists not knowing the history of

the country, or, pure and simple, even if they do know it, they mystify

it, T.’s N.), only now, for the first time transmitted. Then, about the

current use of some Gothic words in Chersonesus Taurica (our days

Crimea) and in Tartaria Praecopensis, most illustrious men, like

Melancht., Busbeq., Scal., Vulcan., Boxhorn., Rachel. Even our

Verelius (Chron., p.m. 338, Vulcan in ad. dit. Not. in Jordanes,

Boxhorn. Hist. Univ. ad. Rachel De jure Publ. Imp. Germ. CXIII),

has shown on the text margin and in the notes to the additions operated

by Vulcanius, that more than a few of those words are absolutely Getic.

For the same reason, the other can also be referred to the same origin,

seen on the same writings. Right this is a reason for being worried, as

expressed in the recently appeared book by the illustrious man Wolff

and already gone Verelius, which we leave to be brought to a good

end. VII. The natural migration of the peoples towards south are the

words belonging to Cromerus (I, I, CXV, by R. Pollon). “It is much

more common”, he says, “that the north peoples would migrate

towards south. It is the case of the Cimbres, Goths, Vandals and

Langobards.” As I said above, what did separated the Goths from the

other peoples, it was the health and body robustness; the respectable

writers assert the same thing: since they have white skin, fair locks of

hair and are one head taller than others.

By such qualities blonde Ceres would give birth to a grand offspring,

like Lucan sang (Lib. IV, De bello Civili, p. 104); beside others, that

one was Procopius (Lib. I, Hist. Vandal.), who added: “The Gothic

nations have been manifolds once, but also today. The noblest of all are

the Goths/Getae, Vandals, Visigoths and Gepidae who have also been

called ancient Sauromatians and Melanchleens. There are some who

called those ones Getae.” (It is very clear that, right as everywhere in

his book, as he did in fact stated it, the Goths is the same as the Getae,

T.’s N.) But those, i.e. the Getae, do not differ at all from the Goths,

but by their names (see also Maria Crisan, Ubicuitatea Geto-Dacilor

– annexed to Arta poetic? la G. Co?buc and Limba str?mo?ilor

no?tri ?i primul poet Romano-geto-dac, Publius Ovid Naso in

which the author speaks about the vowel alternation e/o; so the Goths

are nothing else than tribes of warlike Getae, as they were inclusively

at the mouth of the river Dnieper–Borysthene, as Dion Chrysostom

attests it in Getica, Getae not yet settled, T.’s N.): all having white

skin, reddish fair locks of hair, very tall and with handsome faces.

They have common laws and neither the cult of gods tells them apart.

This is what Coelius says through the mouth of Horace (chap.II,

chap.XXI, in Horat. Epod. XVI): “And neither the savage Germans

could be tamed by the invasion of the blue-eyed Teutons and

Cimmerians (it deals with the invasion of the Teutons and Cimmerians

held by Marius in 102 and 101 BC at Aix and Verceil, T.’s N.) They

are leading their life beneath the North Pole, as Vitruvius (a Roman

architect of the 1st century BC, author of a valuable architecture

treatise, T.’s N.) leaves it to us‚ they are very burly, have a white skin,

straight and reddish hair, blue sky coloured eyes and have much blood;

as a result of a humoural abundance, they are very frost resistant.

While the people living in southern regions are much shorter, dark-

haired, curly-haired, dark-eyed, sick-footed and feeble-blooded.”

Bonfin. (l.c.): “I don’t know what a special and proper thing would

affect to such a degree the human being in relation to the place of birth

-that only by the exterior appearance, by the body constitution, one

can forthwith tell apart a German from a Gaul, a Gaul from a Hispano

and, to be more specific, an Insubre (The Insubres were a people of

Cisalpine Gaul that lived in the present Milanese region having its

capital at Milan, T.’s N.) from a Ligurian, a Ligurian from an

Etruscan, a Roman from a Venetian, a Venetian from a Florentine.” The

same way as Procopius speaks about the Goths, also Alphonsus

Carthagian and the Emperor Constantine The Porphirogenet recount

(Anat. Reg. Hisp., chap.IX, Const. Porph. ref. Hachenb. Orig. Germ.

n. XVIII to the end), and the same does Lucan (De bello civ., lib. 11).

“The Scythian Masaget does not halt at the Hister, he roves

through towards the far north, to the fair-haired and white-bodied


Mutually agreed with them, Lucretius expresses himself, too (De R. Nat., lib. VI):

“What a distinction, frankly speaking, between the skies of

Britain itself and that of Egypt, where the blue vault bows,

Or between the sky of Pont and that of the city of Gades,

and that of the country where live the bronzed-faced Negros.

So, there are four all-distinct realms,

Since each of them has its wind and share of the skies.”

(Titus Lucretius Carus, Poem of Nature, translation, foreword

and notes by D. Mur?ra?u, Bucharest, Minerva Publishing House,


See also in Tacitus’ (De vita Julii Agricolae, chap.XI) the

passage where he recounts about the sky position that had given the

human bodies a certain habitus; and in Diodorus Siculus’ (Bibl. Hist.,

chap.8, p.m. 212) who mentions the Gaulateils’ hairs growing in

accordance with the nature (e. See also in Cicero’s (De

Divin., lib. 11, p.m. 1 23), who in his turn comes to, by very clear

words, confirm quite the same thing. “Why? He says: a distinction

between places, isn’t it ever naturally to entail also distinct offspring in

people? Those we can easily review: why are there so great differences

between Ethiopians and Syrians as regards their bodies and souls, as

different as their homelands are: wherefrom it could be understood that

at birth it matters more the position of the land (homelands) than the

trajectory of the Moon.” VIII. At the Attendant on the Holies in almost

the entire Christian Universe, at the Royal Council that thing has been

told by the energetical Nico1aus Ragvaldus (the then representative of

Wexionensus, sent to the said council, thereafter even High Pontiff of

Uppsala (see C. Stephanus) which everyone subscribed to, a thing

included in the Documents executed at that Council and even in the

history. Such thing also occurs in the speech held there and together

with the annex of a solemn contestation, published both in Latin, and

in the mother’s tongue. IX. It is disputed the authenticity (a?te.t….)

of the confirmation given the laws of CHRISTOPHORUS‚ King of

Sueonia, Dania and Norway, which are preserved to our days in the

Archives of the Kingdom (the Ancient History by Ablavius, conveyed

in manuscript confirms the laws of the Kingdom of Sueonia having

been common with those of the Danes, since they are undersigned by

the Kings of both kingdoms. And such arguments are important, since

by us, the lawyers, it is understood an eviction (evincentia) and which

just “on such an occasion, almost only at a sign (by the thumb, I guess,

T.’s N.) it could suffice to obtain it (I think it deals with a

recognition/confirmation of the authenticity of the laws in question, T.’s N.)

§2. I already said in the preceding paragraph this being the

common opinion of the writers: that is the power of the truth entailing

a unanimous consent. And among the historians who did really doubt

it? If, for too much concern about novelty, you deny such a thing, then

you would need to deny everything: if you say it is a lie coming from

the old ones, then you have to say that everything is a lie. So, what a

force more powerful than the history’s, which you should give credit,

than the old mandates conveyed to us through the monuments. And

why just them, in point now, the Goths, the Langobards and others;

there it is confessed they have left for many corners of the world: in

what directions and how; by the own confession of everyone, as living

beings, gifted with sight, prudence, of those whose memory did not yet

get to sleep, I note it is my duty to completely reveal the truth and

dissolve the misunderstandings.

§3. So, let’s start with Jordanes, himself a Goth (i.e. Geta, T.’s N.) who

extracted his work from the ancients’ writings; he recounts the Goths

having come from SCANZIA (Scandinavia of our days) just like a bee

swarm (De Getarum sive Gothorum origine et rebus gestis, C. I, II,

III, IV, V). He then shows us what means that SCANZIA and the

nations living there; thus, making use of a reach vocabulary, he reveals

the way the Goths left their dwellings. So, he calls our Scandia a plant

of peoples, a womb of nations. Further on he shows us the extent of the

eastern and western Goths have spread, although Getae by the voice

inflection (thus, singing, because they did sing their laws too like

psalms, proving that their language was harmonious and melodious, a

feature proved also by the fact that Ovid could adapt the Latin prosody

to the Getic language, see the poem Laudes de Caesare, T.’s N.)

called those peoples Ostrogoths and Visigoths. So, we should

understand: with another troop of Goths they left Scanzia (under the

ruling of King Berich (read Herich), Jordanes mentions; things about

he spoke above, he now repeats them on short.

§4. Procopius (Hist. Goth., IV, fragment, p.m. 241 and 248) takes out

the Ostrogoths and Visigoths from the same Scanzia, as well as the

Langobards (so, he added that to the same history fragment, relating to

the countries inhabited by the Goths). Same way does Procopius7,

adding to them other uncounted Vandals (in Tacitus’, De Mor. Germ.,

chap.II, we find under the name of VANDALS, in Procopius’ and

Zosimus ßa.d…., and in Eutropius ..a.da…, with the versions

Vandeli, Vindili, Vinili, Vinuli, Winili, Winuli), with the Goths affirming

their common origin: G…. te e.s. .a. .a.d…. .a. …s……

.a. (“Goths are also the Vandals and the Visigoths and the

Gepidae”, Hachenberg, Orig. Germ., XIII); that the Vandals have

adjoined to the other Goths, it confirms us an issue of great confidence

(Procop., Vandal., lib. I, lib.IV, chap.39) – under King Gilimer, who

enjoyed a great sympathy; he had under his leadership the every and

the most noble offspring of the nation; among the writers enjoying the

greatest confidence is Grotius (Proleg. Hist. Goth.)

§5. Alike Paulus too, in The Langobard Warnefridi (De Gestis

Langobardorum, lib. I, chap.II), as himself confesses, mentioning his

nation, it proved that its inhabitants (the Langobards) together with the

Goths, leaving our Scandinavia, approached Scandinau. Johannes

Boëmus (De Mor., leg. et ritibus omnium gentium, lib. III, chap.8)

calls it with the same name, yet also with many others; then also in

Ptolemy’s we find mentioned Goths living by the Vistula. Naturally

Mela too (lib. III, chap.6) calls them identically, with the same word.

The same way does Plinius (IV, 1 2), as well as Solinus (III, 19 ?i 20).

Right here, in Scandia (just how Plinius said) Isidorus asserts (Init.

Chron. Gothorum) there was the oldest kingdom of the Goths (=

Getae, T.’s N.) And as he very accurate mentions, it came out from the

Kingdom of the Scythians. For that reason Dexippus (lib. II) entitled

his books dedicated to the matters of the Goths, .

(“The Exploits of the Scythians) to make clear every good faith writer that

historical truth (namely, the Getae descend from the Scythians, T.’s N.)

And Eunapius mentions the Scythians in a blurred language, idem

Ammianus; and Ablavius Gothus, in a choice language, speaks most

accurately of all (Nicol. Ragv. Orat., p.m. 165 ex Ablav.) But Dion

Chrysostom, in his book about the wars of the Goths, calls them

Get…., “Getic” 8 (here Carolus Lundius makes a serious error, for it

is common knowledge that Dion lived in the 1st century AD and wrote

a treatise titled GGGeeettt……a aa (Getic Matters) from which JORDANES

/JORNANDES inspired himself, as Lundius calls him again and again,

while the Goths (even if the same thing with the Getae)

appeared in the history, certainly detached from the Getae, only in the

4th or 5th century AD, T.’s N.) Let’s add here Zosimus and Zonaras

too, in many passages of their works; beside them, Plinius himself

counts the Getae among the Scythian peoples (IV, 12); the same with

Trebellius Pollio (Vita Galieni et Claudii), where the Austro Goths

are included in the set of the same nations. Anastas comes to adjoin

here, too. (Hist. Chronol.) S…a. .. .e..µe… G.t… (“the

Scythians that are called Goths”). Rosendius (Antiquit. Lusit.): “Many

peoples”, he says, “draw their Gothic names from Scania, a thing

overlooked by the old writers and confusedly presented under the title

of Getica.” Jacobus Bergomensis (Suplem. Chron.): “Peoples that

have been called by the Greek and from which Scythia and Gothia

drew their names.” Schedel/Senensis: “the Scythians from which

Svecia and Gothia draw their names.” Heinsius, in Paneg. Gust.

Magni asserts: “The more recent geographers unwittingly made a

distinction between the ancient Getae and the Goths. They didn’t

realise that the Getae and the Goths are pretty alike and in several

books by the old ones, the authors rely on both the testimonies of the

Romans, and those of the Greeks, since they share both a common

name and origin.” From here Ferrarius recounts, relating to that

historical truth, recollecting the most serious writers whose authority

compels like a marble stone (Paneg. R. Christ. laud. dic.)

§6. But all these assertions do not coincide in every respect with our

histories and the ancient Annals of Sveonia? Of course they do! Af

Japhet are komne Scyther och Geter, som longt epter Kalladis Gother /

och nu Schwenske (“the Scythians and the Getae draw from Japhet, and

later on, after the Goths, they were called Sueones” (accord. to Chron.

and Hist. Pat.) I now pass by the Scythian Empire stretching over the

whole Globe and about which fully recount Herodotus, Xenophon,

Strabo, Diodorus Siculus and how many ever others and in how many

ever passages and whose assertions fully agree with every major

history and national annals.

§7. About the Hispani Alphonsus de Villa Diego The Hispano too

heard (Chron. Goth. Regni p.m. II): “Gothia is in Scandia, he says,

the natural fatherland of our Gothic people, where themselves set out,

and where they still have their Royal and State residence.” To such

assertion consent Roderic and Tolet, too. (Rerum in Hispania gest., lib.

II, chap.4); Joh. Lup. (De J. et J. Regni Navari, VI. 4): Alphons.

Carthag. (Anac. Regum Hisp., chap.IX) and others.

§8. As for the set-out of the Goths from there to Italy, Italians

themselves witness it with one voice, which by all means served as an

argument in the History drawn up, partly printed, partly hand written,

kept in the Library of the Vatican in Rome, not both in Latin, as rather

in Italic dialect (isn’t it by chance just the old Romanian language, I

mean Geto-Dacian? T.’s N.), in it being included the Exploits of the

Goths, as conveyed to the Posterity. It didn’t propose itself so much to

bring great praises the Goths with elegance and firmness, as it tells us

illustrious Octavius Ferrarius (Pan. Chr. Reg., p. 7, 8, and 19).

Connected therewith also Sigonius (De regno Ital., lib., I, p.m. 11)

proves that the Goths themselves would not have given birth the

eternal empire of the Romans in Italy, quite conversely, since, as I was

saying, the Scythians were the creators of Italy. Among other writers

concerned with the origins of the Goths/Getae, also counted Cato, from

whom there have preserved fragments that survive in our days, too (so,

less than four centuries ago, Cato Maior’s book, The Originis of

Rome, in which he also recounts about ancientness of the Getic

writings, still existed or at least fragments of it, T.’s N.) So it wasn’t

surprising when Plautus called Italy barbarian (Poen III) II, 21). The

Italic priest of Hercules he called Poticium The Barbarian(Poticium =

Pinars, -orum, an old family in Latium dedicated to Hercules, T.’s N.),

and the Italian ritual, barbarian. The Italian cities have got the epithet

of barbarian , too. The Italian or Roman laws have also been labelled

as barbarian (Bacchid., I, 11, 15; Casin., II, VI. 19; Chap., IV, II, 104

and III, 1, 32) and translated into Latin in a barbarian manner. And

why not should I say the holidays, too, as well as others, have been

deemed as barbarian, once such names were accepted with any

peoples, except for the Greeks. Even the oldest words that were by

origin Tuscan (from Tuscany in Etruria, i.e. Etruscan) and Scythian, are

clearly convincingly Gothic (indeed Getic!, T.’s N.), accord. to

Plautus., Asin., prol. II and Trin., prolog. XIX. The verb pultare (“to

strike lightly”), which Plautus uses very often, comes from our pulta or

bulta (Latin French Dictionary, the 5th edition, Hachette, 1923,

provides us with the following explanation: pulto,-are is an archaism

for pulso,-are, “to strike”, “to knock at the door”, it meaning in Plautus

“to slightly knock at the gate/door” and, whereas the comic poet Titus

Maccius Plautus, designated as an inimitable painter of bad popular

habits, lived between 250 and 184 BC, it is quite obvious that all the

barbarian words present in his comedies come from the Geto-Dacian

language and not from the Gothic itself, Gothic being in its turn an

adorned Getic, as old sources reveal it, more so that the Goths (in my

opinion, quite at all far from Lundius’ opinion, T.’s N.) they appeared

on the stage of the history (the East Goths and the West Goths –

Ostrogoths and Visigoths) in the middle of the 4th century (350-375),

with Amaler and Hermanrich, respectively (350-375), an empire,

destroyed by the Huns; W-G under Alarich (395-410) invaded Italy (in

410 they took over Rome); Rekkared (586-601) > Catholicism; their

last King was Roderich (710-711). W-Goths their last king, King Teja,

falls at Vezuv in 552; they disappeared in 601 AD, so their ruling

extended over a period of two and a half centuries. Thus, with not even

a trace of doubt, every barbarian word used by the talented Latin

comediographer Plautus are created from the Getic language, since the

Getae and the Dacians had arrived on the Italic soil long before Rome

has been founded and remained at home as such, to which have

adjoined the prisoners of war – some of them reduced to slavery therefore

the characters – slaves of the comedies, both Greek and Latin

are called simply Davos or Davus, Getes or Geta (yet there was a

Roman Emperor, Antoninus Geta, among those seven Antonins

Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, Verus

and Commodus). Antoninus Geta (born in Milan in 189) was

Caracalla’s brother, with whom he shared the reign and who killed him

in 212 AD, thus at the age of 23. Caracalla ordered to be executed

over 20,000 people; he was also the murderer of the jurist Papinian,

because he refused to make the apology of Geta’s having been

murdered (so those state rulers killing also their next relatives descend

from that hateful Roman emperor, T.’s N.) The verb mulcare (“to

milk”) is not a Latin word, VARRO (116-27 BC, a poet and one of the

most renowned scholars of his time, from who also a treatise on the

agriculture, De re rustica, has preserved; so the author relies on very

reliable sources, authors that lived centuries BC, reinforcing the idea of

having to deal with a pure Getic vocabulary, T.’s N.), yet Gellius too

admits it openly (Noct. Attic., lib. XI) chap.1). As neither the verb

mulctare is Latin. Since, in fact, in the same way, by milking, the milk

is drawn from the teats (udder), which by a sermone vernaculo, i.e. a

popular word (in Varro, however, by the words vernacula vocabula it

is meant “Latin words”), we say mulka, molka (Thys. and Gronovius in

Plautus, Stich., III, 1, 19; Fragm. Legum Sueon. et Goth., chap.XVI).

There are some asserting that mulgeo and mulceo (“I milk”), herein

and mulcto or mulco (“I punish”) would come from the Greek aµe…

(“I milk”), while in fact it is suitable to look for a common source, first

of all, in Scythian. Halophantam, a word we know it occurs in Plautus

(Curcul., IV, I, 2), as well as in Salmasius and Scaliger, as the

commentators of the same passage, (but that word can perfectly be

derived from hal and fante and we deem it being wrongly connected to

the Greek …fa.t.. (a word that appears neither in Bailly, Old

Greek Dictionary, Paris, 1929 nor in E. Legrand, ample modern

Greek dictionary, Paris, printed about in the same time period;

I suspect it being a pure legal term, used in the Middle Ages, which

could be found in a specialty dictionary), meaning “the requirement to

appear before a court of law”, “to pay a bail for someone”, “vessel”, an

expression originating in Sueonia and that can be connected to a

similar wording, occurring again in Martial in his 9th book, T.’s N.);

same are things with the word bustirapus (at origin meaning

“thief/graves desecrater”), Bust-ei-rapr, which in the old Gothic

language/i.e. Getic means “man”, is used by Plautus with the same

meaning, of “bald man”, having no hair on the head to be entitled to be

called a full man (vir bonus); in Plautus (Merc., V, 2, 85, and Rud., II,

II, 9) the word MACHAERIA is used with the meaning of “small

swords”, it being the old Gothic word MAEKER, from where also the

Greek µa.a..a (“meat chopper”) took it; de socco, socca (from the

word soccus, a special low boot put on by the comedy actors), used by

Plautus in his Boastful Soldier, last act (comp. with Mercat., V, II, 85;

Rud., II, II, 9 and Edd. Havamal., LXXI) is Scyhtian by origin, and the

Gothic SOLA (see Bacchid. II, III, 98) answers perfectly that word (we

should not forget that always in question is a Geta or a Geta too, when

he says Goth, T.’s N.); SCURRA (“buffoon”, “sycophant”, “trickster”)

which with the ancients meant “to utter idle talk/sarcasms to trigger the

laugh of others”, takes us to the meaning of SKURA of our national

language, meaning “prattler”, “babbler.” Yet what status have other

pure Scythian (i.e. Getic words, T.’s N.) which occur frequently in

ENNIUS, PLAUTUS, CATO, VARRO and many other authors, from

whom we quote a part: vinnula, cista, cistula. cistellula, herus, herilis,

heres, heredium, herediolum, caput, arca, arcula, cippula, nasus,

denasare, casteria, claro, clarifico, claritas, claror, claritudo,

clarigatio, mundus, mundare, vocare, advocare, fallere, velare, stygius,

carcer, carcerare, gelu, cura, curare, stare, urbare, turbare, nomen,

nominare, meminisse, taberna, tabernarius, catus, cat?, nicere, nere,

nictare, sputare, insputare, caupo, stega, puteus, potus, putus, putillus,

baltheus, pipare, pipire, boreas, rica, ricula, ricinium, acheruns, boia,

rosca, pellis, palla, pallium, pallula, palliolum, palliolatus,

paludamentum, paludatus, palatum, palatium, specio, cum compositis,

specto, speculor, spiculum, speculator, speculum, specus, spelunca,

species (a majority of those words also occur in present German

language -fein, kiste, Kapitel, klar, Palast, Niere – not only in

Romanian, proving once more that our ancestors shared a common

history with Germanic peoples, we lived in the same regions, the

Vlacho-Geto-Dacians and Carpian peoples spoke the same or almost

the same language as the Cimmerians, the Celts and the Teutons,

the Getic laying in fact at the bedrock of all, in its bosom being he

writing, too – T.’s N.) Reverting to the ancient word PAN, analysed

here above, we found it is at the same time, Greek, Italic, and

Germanic, since originally it is a Scythian/Getic word. i.e. Getic. To

the Latin legere (“to read”) it corresponds the Greek legein .e.e.., and

lesa/läsa in our language, and in Wulfila legunt (“they read”) (Math.,

VI. 26) occurs lisan. Zythus, and in Diodorus Siculus’ ….. is neither

an Egyptean nor a Greek word, from .e. .e. meaning “to boil”, yet

pure Gothic (i.e. also Getic, T.’s N.), since the Greek ….. reads

with us seth sodh, where th is expressed by th or dh (Arngrim confirms

it, lib. I, chap.III) and from him, also Verelius (Runog. Scand.,

chap.VII, chap.III); hence has formed the verb sieda, siuda, in German

sieden, meaning “to boil”, “to thaw.” We say, for instance, a drink of

boiled barley; the Greek te…, in Latin tero (“I crush, crumble,

grind”) comes from our verb teira/tera, wherefrom handtera (“to

grind/crush by hand”; … or … ….. (“pile”, “accumulation”) is

said to come from .e., meaning “plenty”; for such a derivation I

won’t give a dime, for it is clear to me that it comes from the Getic

tina, since in Cicero (Orat. cont. Rull.) we have cogere (“to gather”)

and coacervare (“to pile up”). Even the noun montes (“mountains”) is

used as an equivalent to maximi (“the biggest”), acervi (“loads of

cereals”) in Plautus (Pseud., I, II, 55). The Latin aevum (“duration”,

“time”, “century”) comes from the Gothic/Getic äwe and is quite close

to the Greek a… and the Arab avan (thus, there could be built whole

sentences in ancient Getic language, based on those extremely valuable

etymological formulas the current Romanian also keeps the ancient

Getic word ev, T.’s N.) Compare to what Celsus says (Com. Eccl., p. I,

chap.8 – dealing with a philosopher renowned for his attacks against

the Christianity, who lived in Rome in the 2nd century AD, under the

Antonins). I now refer to Plato (Crat., p.m. 319) where we would find

several Greek words received from the barbarians; I also refer to

Dionysus (lib. I, to the end) who clearly asserts Rome having at first

made use of the Greek language, wherefrom many words penetrated

thereafter into Latin, mixing up with Latin (so, the Latin language has

took a lot from the old Getic both directly, through the Geto-Dacian

population in Rome and indirectly, via the Greek language, T.’s N.) I

also refer to Julius Caesar Scaliger (an Italian philologist and doctor,

one of most scholars of Renaissance, 1484-1558), author of a brilliant

treatise of poetry, T.’s N.) from whom we learn that old Latins took

over uncounted words from Magna Grecia.

I also refer to illustrious Morhosius (lib. De patav. Liv., chap.XI) who

conveys to us the information that in Italy have existed more

languages: those of the native slaves, but originated in other regions, as

well as those of the house; each of them had its own language, an

opinion which I fully agree to, yet wanting to underscore that many of

the Latin words were of Scythian origin. Even the odd number comes

yet not from the Greeks, but from the Scythians; erudite people have

shown already that both the flexion of the verb, and that of the noun in

Latin have a barbarian origin, for instance; karkar, karker, karkeris,

karkeri = carcer, carceris, carceri, (“jail, of the jail, to the jail”). In

karkarai, according to Wulfila (see also the Glossary of Wulfila The

Goth, as well as the ancient laws Codices Pat.) ai reads as being an e,

in carcere, as the sounds themselves au and ai read e: namen, namnis,

namni = nomen, nominis, nomini (“names, of the name, to the name”);

father, fathris, fathri = pater, patris, patri (“father, of the father, to the

father”); mother, mothris, mothri = mater, matris, matri (“mother, of

the mother, to the mother”). And in verbs: im, is, ist = sum, es, es, (“I

am, you are, he/she/it is”); vidiau, videis, videith? = video, vides, videt

(= I see, you see, he/she/it sees); vastiau, vastis, vastit /or vastijt vestio,

vestis, vestit (“I put on, you put on, he/she/it put on”); au with the

Goths reads like o or ó; haba, habas, habaith = habeo, habes, habet

(“I have, you have, he has”). from the Gothic haba it came to the Latin

habeo; therefore haba is habeo, habas – habes, habaith – habet, habam

– habemus (“we have”), habaith – habetis (“you have”) and habant habent

(“they have”). Haba is today hawer. Pretty sure thing, habetus

is instead of avitus (“had, held”, but also “stout” in Plautus) and habe

instead of ave (“may you have”), according to Non. And Bongars. Ad

Justin. (lib. I, chap.I‚ 4). So, it is easy to connect things together in

such a way, as to conclude those words not only having pre-existed in

Gothic (Getic), but also they having been adapted and translated in

Latin rather at the mercy of anyone; even the acceptation of the verb is

often construed in Plautus and Terentius a little too boldly, when they

want to say that a woman has been had (haberi) it is added cum coit

(“has been possessed/has united through a marriage”), which in our old

laws would be expressed with some chastity and never would be

elaborated in such a manner.

§9. It is now the Francs’ turn, about which many convincing authors

speak, among them Freculphus too (loc. cit.), who makes clear as

follows “they have arrived thereat from the island of Scanzia (=

Scandinavia) which is in the womb of the nations, that an exodus took

place, by which the Goths and the other Teutonic peoples have left, as

proved by their language and idioms.” The first to live in France were

the Celts (such thing happened in the 1st century BC, T.’s N.), through

the yoke of which the aboriginal populations, the Gauls, have been

submitted and eventually they adopted Franc names for themselves.

Nothing more true than this: that the Gauls of Gaul or Galgavia have

been useful to the Sueons. See Atlant. Cl. Rudebeckii


It has been called JOTNAHEIM or RISALAND, i.e. The Land of the

Giants, as certain fragments in ancient histories have sufficiently proved.

They have been called Resar and even Kallar or Gollar, and region itself

Kailand and Gaulland .It is clearly written in the Eddic documents;

according to others, they called Gallar and Geyter, or according to other

assertions, Geter, Gyller etc.; even by the name of Kimbrar, Kappar and

Gallar. Hence the name of Ga.ata., Gauls, Galatae, e.µe.e.. .a.

.e…. (“tall and fair-haired”), asserts Diodorus (Bibl. (Hist. e. p.m.

212). As we shall see, a same statute shall be granted the Trojans, like in

the case of Gauls’ origin, who lived in the Celtic Gaul, an opinion

unanimously accepted. The Trojans are the same with the Sueons, and

Troy is the capital of the Nation, a monumental city of which preserved

but ruins, once very powerful, as a seat of the kings of Uppsala,

wherefrom Uppsala kongr (“King of Uppsala”), as being a Sueons’ king

of the whole Globe: among the ancient monuments wholly trustful, we

quote the foreword to the Eddic writings, having exactly the same

significance with the assertions by Diodorus Siculus (Bibl. (Hist., e.

m.p.132) that the Trojans spread in the fields have gathered at one place,

e.. p..e.. pe..ß…. or pe..ß…..

.e..ß…, since Troy was surrounded by walls; the verb pe..ßa…

is formed of pe.., “around” and ßa…, “to throw”, “to build”, since it

looked like a well built castle and principal place of defence of the

stronghold (p..e..), so pe..ß…. designates Troy9. I said Uppsala

kongr, where the noun Uppsala is a plural. This way were things always,

the singular never being met in ancient authors; therefore, it always

should be written UPSALIAE, in plural, and not UPSALIAS or

UPPSALA, in singular; the plural again is used in the case of other

cities, like ATHENAE, THEBAE, SYRACUSAE and other towns alike.

That is too the origin of Trojan colonies (R. Magnus Ericus’ Law Book,

Eddic Writings, legends 3 and 7). According to Monaster (Chron., p.m.

113), Homer (Il., in different passages), they have been the Goths (read

Geto-Dacians, T.’s N.) from the family of which came out the Trojans.

Homer, as an author of the epic on the Trojan War, made annotations not

so much about the Greek bodies as especially the Trojans’ ones, they

being very stout and handsome at that time, resembling the gods,

qualities they may have lost in time (note that Homer was born 169 years

after the Trojan War, we learn it from Herodotus, who dedicated him a

little book, On Homer’s Life and Works, T.’s N.)

We often find in Iliad annotations like ..s. … ß..t.. e.s., “those

look now like common people, that is the difference the centuries have

marked” (See also Val. Paterc., lib. I, chap.5).

Sure thing they have been called Gaullar, Jottnar, GETTAR, GETAR,

from Ga, GIO, Jo etc. (so the same etymon as in the case of the Getic

word, T.’s N.), i.e. they have been called Earth, for that reason they

having been called by the ancients Giants, sons of Terra, G..a.

(“giant”), from .e (“earth”), which in the Doric dialect is .a, meaning

the same thing (see the Eddic texts, the legend V,18) and Diodorus, Bibl.

(Hist., III, p.m. 142).

Here are some lines by Hesiod (Theog., V, 147 and 183):

“.sta. .a. .a.aµ…e. ape.t..e. a.µat.esta.,

.asa. Ga.a pe..p..µe… d’e..a.t..,’, ……. te ..ate.a. µe.a… te …a.ta..”

The popular version

“All that heap of tears shed, mixed with blood

all the Earth sucked in, in order for them to, years thereafter,

return to him as sturdy Erinies and great giants.”

Orpheus himself masterfully sang the Giants fed by Terra also with the

blood in the skies.

“…e.a .e. e.e…t. .a. a.µat.. …a….. .”(Orph. I, 8, s.s.)

In the same way opines Tacitus too (De mor. Et pop. Germ., chap.II),

like other writers too, when speaking about the origin and customs of the

Germans: “They praise in old poems the God Tuiston, grown on Terra,

and his son Mannus, as creators and founders of the nation’s origin”

Tacitus., d.l., chap.IV, and lib. II, Annal., chap.XIV); they are very stout,

underscores the Latin historian; “their look is savage” (Histor., lib. V,

chap.18; chap.XI) Vit. Agric.) Let’s hear also what Saxo Grammaticus,

the Danish saying (lib. 11, p.m. XXX): “Her are the cruel and fierce-

eyed Goths, their look likewise, threatening with their aquiline helmets

and noisy sticks.”

Claudianus (lib. II) adds about the Goths living in Phrygia, how together

with the Ostrogoths and Guthini, they farm the Phrygian field…

Therefore it is fitting to give attention to the codex manuscript. In what

particular way there can be distinguished the Giothars from the Guthars

(see except the very old law fragments (Kunungsdr. Vpp., chap.XXIX,

chap.1) and many other documents). Region Smaland (a country in south

Sweden, located in the Götaland peninsula, T.’s N.) called Guta (as it

called once by Ptolemy, we learn from the foreword at Joannes Magnus’

History, first book to the end).

There it was the stronghold – capital of those Colerus (a commentator

of Tacitus (De mor. Germ., chap.XLIII), comp. with Homer (Il., III,

96, f.f.) and Virgil, Aeneid, p.m. 1 52), called it Calmaria

(CALMAR, a stronghold and port in south Sweden and capital of the

province with the same name, T.’s N.) Right that is the brilliant Trojan

stronghold, Troja, having strong walls. One of its gates is called Skaear

(Scheana Gate), in Greek S.a.a., in Latin Scaeae, the vaults of which

have been praised by Homer (Il., III, 96, 30 passim) and Virgil,

(Aeneis, I, 2, p.m. 152).

“With barbarian gold and through spoliations the renowned gate has

been built.” And yet, Virgil too (Aeneis, chap.III, see 1-3):

“After the gods deemed it right to ruin the power of Asia,

through no fault of it, they exterminating the Priam’s people,

Ilion when perished and TROY sunk in smoke…” (trans. after G.


According to Hachenberg (Orig. German., I, 28; Laz., De Migr. Gent.,

lib. III), the Trojans or Phrygians, Cimbrians and Francs were originally

one people; just for that reason it is dealt with the Phrygian Cimbrian

language, i.e. the Teuton language firstly spoken at Troy.

We also learn from Virgil (d. I, III) that all the holy things, the

Trojan deities are in fact those of ours:

“The son of Tros and interpreter for deities, you, the skilled in

Signs given by the laurel, the Phoeb and the holy tripod,

Given by the stars in the sky, the flight and song of birds.”

(trans. after G. Cosbuc)

§10. Petrus Trecensius Gallus (Rud. N. praefat. ad lat. leg. Ragvaldus’

version), praised somewhere here above by Joannes Messenius,

recounts more ample the Scandinavian Goths: “The ancient ones called

those nations, the descendants of which have populated the most part

of Europe and Asia, rather Getae than Goths.” A too scrupulous censor

rejected such an opinion. It has been in turn defended by Cicero (Verr.

Divin., p.m. 56, Sturm Publishing House) through the following words:

“…although completely oppressed and ruined regions, yet populated.”

Then, the same thing Gallus said: “There is up to our days a very large

region, having at north Norway and Dacia, and in the other parts being

surrounded by the planetary ocean.” And yet, how it differs from

Sveonia: “…that nation, he says, is very strong, since by its military

power has subjugated most of Asia and Europe for long time, only

being scared by the courage of Alexander the Great of the Greeks when

he attacked them.

Even Julius Caesar’s invincible power, who defeated the Gauls, was

terrified by the German fighters united with the Danes, the Britons, the

Norric Goths and northern peoples, as well as other peoples. Among

them there were also the Amazons who marched in front of all, as

recounts Orosius and Isidorus” (lib. XIV). Ferrarius, as above

mentioned, abundantly confirms all these qualities of the Goths

wandering around almost the whole globe. As for that women

population, I told you more here above. Sure thing, the writers recall it

unanimously, having only words of praise for them. They have come

now in Smalandia’s Verendia (the Country of Amazons, according to

our ancient writers, is Kuenland and Konogard. See also Verel.

Hervarar, the legend c. I, where our ancestors call it Conogardia), in

very vast lands, enjoying the esteem for the ancient physical power. as

for the silk military fascias, they call feitteckn; these women wear them

at feasts too, as I’ve seen with my eyes, and as for the heredity

concept, they are admitted, dealing on equal terms with men; as

regards other things, they are worked out based on a common

jurisdiction for women / confused = promiscuo jure / (I suspect some

kind of an agreement between them, ad- hoc, at random, T.’s N.),

accord. to Joh. Magn (D. praefat. C. III to the end; Adam Bremens, De

situ Danorum et reliq. Septent. Reg., chap.LXXVIII and XC.)

§11. About the Cantabrigiensi Britons (Angles), Cl. Seringham (De

orig. Anglorum c. VII) he says: “Those are the Getae which

afterwards have been called Goths; setting out from Scanzian

Peninsula, they were the first to occupy the neighbouring islands. From

there they left for Chersonesus and the neighbouring regions, where

our ancestors had left some time before; until they came there, those

regions have never before been inhabited by other nations” (Id., chap.I

and II, 5). The same thing he recounts about the Anglo-Britons who

draw from the Angles (so the Dacians always will be the same with the

Getae, and the Getae one thing with the Goths, T.’s N.), who at first

were called by the old Britons to help, with whom they had to carry a

terrible and long war and the same, through many battles, finally they

have defeated them (for that reason, many authors praised them;

among such also Arngrimus Jonas (Criin., lib. I, chap.III). “These

letters (meaning the Gothic Runes) I do not relate to Norway or

Iceland, but instead to the tongue that called Danica and which is still

spoken in Dania (and also in Norrigia), now Norvagica, or even to that

old Gothic”, which, which even in that time I think to have been

spoken all over the Aretinian country (in ancient times Etruria, with its

later developed cities: Tuscany, Arezzo …‚

in any case, in the Antiquity it was inhabited by the Etruscans, T.’s N.)

and extended to the neighbouring peoples; idem England, Scotland,

Ireland. Since about Angles we got very clearly written, it dealing with

that language of Norway also used in Wilhelm Nothus’ time: such

things are asserted by Arngrimus (Cryin., lib. I, chap.3).

§12. “In no way we are dealing with a Scottish name fraud, if he

admits himself as a descendent of the Goths / the Getae, while the most

powerful kings of the Hispanics are glorified as ones to took away the

coat of arms from here; even the most noble of the Italy draw their

stock from the Goths (i.e. the Getae, T.’s N.) or deny their origin; and

subsequently even the Emperor Carolus Quintus used to claim that in

fact the nobility of the whole Europe set out indeed from Scandia and

Gothia through filiations.” So spoke Camdenus (Britann. de Scotis,

p.m. 40 and the following)). The Emperor Carolus Quintus, in his

letters sent the King GUSTAV I of Sueonia, also containing some

memories, confessed that both he and his kind draw from the Goths’

stock. Concerning such descent, some princes have been more

ambitious, as Munsterus recounts (Cosmog., De Regnis Septent. lib

IV c. XX): “… the Goths’ glory comes from Scandia”, and the Roman

Empire is an absolute result of that Goths’ glory, which, upon

penetrating by foot in Italy, they have laid vast Rome and maintained

their reign many years over Italy; they occupied Gaul, established

kingdoms in Spain and raised the most noble prince’s houses (in fact,

Spain has been invaded as early as 600 BC by the Celts – a German

people group that upon mixing with the Iberians, gave birth to the

Celto-Iberians; in 19 BC, the whole Spain has been occupied by the

Romans. In 400 AD the Alans, the Suets and the Vandals overran – all

of them being German ethnical groups that, in 415 yielded their place

to the West Goths, which formed a kingdom destroyed in 711 by the

Arabs, from their kingdom only lasting a strip in the north of Spain;

thus, Spain owes a greater part of its culture the German peoples, i.e.

including the Geto-Dacian, T.’s N.)

§13. About the Germans as a nation, there it is what Paulus

Fagius, himself a German, asserts (Lib. De Meth. Hebr., p.m. 56),:

“… the Gothic nations (peoples) everywhere they may have come in

with their armies, have also brought their language, either fully, as it is

spoken today in the German regions or corrupted, as it happened in

Italy, Spain and Gaul.” It has been only recently proved (it is likely to

be a work issued around the year 1687, when Lundius published his

book, T.’s N.) that the Teutons have born from the Goths (meaning the

Getae), see also Gulielm. Postel., De origin., Versteg.

annotated by Cl. Shering. d.d.chap.VII); according to

Versteganus, in Scanzia never got any peoples confederated,

recounting the number of people of Germany being so great, that it

would be necessary to establish colonies or, by the word of the author

himself: “that they were constrained to seck habitations mor nor ther

ly”, it meaning they have been compelled to leave their fatherland in

the northern regions, for housing reasons: that was the state of affairs.

The whole prosecution background concerning that item is disclosed in

court by the above praised Cl. Seringham yet where, by his fellow

countrymen’s testimonies, the charge has been rejected pretty

convincing, and the rationale, if anymore, is vehemently denied, too.

§14. The same the Svizers (the Swiss), and the name itself reveals the

origin of the people, since it is about Svevia that we deem by right and

as a matter of fact, on juridical grounds, as being ours. Stumpfius

himself, since long a renowned writer of the great and flintlike Swiss

people, for that being praised even by Hachenbergius (Orig. Germ., q.

XX), citing from the ancient author Gilgus Tschudus, plentifully

confessed that the Suevs’ ruler, accompanied by a lot of people,

descended from Scandia, gave his name, deeming it as holy, noble and

everlasting, the places he crossed, as well as their inhabitants. And

Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558; not only this Scaliger, one of the

most erudite Renaissance men, a renowned philologist and doctor, and

also author of a dissertation on the art of poetry, called Julius Caesar,

after the name of the famous Roman general, who was said to have

descended from Venus and Anchises, but also Pope Julius II (15031513)

and according to the works they have completed, it clearly

shows that names to have been fated, T.’s N.), since in the funeral

oration held in public in the memory of those Germans fallen in the

battlefield near Vienna, we can read as follows: “Wherefrom do our

days Swiss come in fact? If not somehow from the villages of those,

yet also from the neighbouring strongholds, very powerful, in Svecia,

which the citizens occupied, so that under the influence of the name

and their fatherland name, they have been called Svizers.” No doubt

the distinguished and loaded with praises scholar Hachenbergius, in his

work, On the Origins of the Germans, by way of all kinds of

reasoning, based on reason, no doubt by right, draws the following

conclusions: “From these it clearly results it is difficult to deceive

them, since the Germans ar a native, honest, enduring, and fair people,

as it may be easily seen. Neither the Germans nor any of their peoples

plunged into actions for sincerity glory’s sake.

The more recent ones spent the century in wars, so that the Spaniards,

Italians, Gauls, Svecians, Danes and Hungarians, having nested in

Germany, coming also by the right of the marriage, have mixed their

blood with that of the Germans. That way it might be explained why a

great part of them, if you want to LOOK INTO THE PRIMARY

ORIGIN, one almost cannot tell them apart from the Germans,

because, in fact, they descend from the common mother of the

European peoples, i.e. they came from Scandinavia; this is why that

great Swedish King, GUSTAV ADOLF‚ in 1627 urged the German

army to come back to the old regions, shared by the Swedish and

Goths alike, under the jurisdiction in effect (utendi jure).” That fact is

properly mentioned by Goldastus (lib. II, chap.V, De Boh. Regn.),

when he wrote that the Germans have complied with an order by

Gustav Adolf to come back to their native places. So, It is therefore

with guts to give credit to such and other legends like that, childishly

fabricated; identically, it is not advisable to deny them without a prior

judgement. “Nor are happier those taking refuge in other places, be it

that endless wilderness of Asia, to regain the unknown race of the

origin of their people, to so avoid any wrong theory on the birth of the

Goths and Huns; as they are known to everybody through a vivid proof

too, of the Nordic peoples, the Goths draw from Svecia, being born in

that kingdom, in which even today lasts the race of that people,

preserving the same names.” These were the words of the wisest

Werdenhagens (Rerump. Hanseat., p. III, chap.1). As regards the

name of Semnonum, a name by which are designated a hundred of

inhabited villages, as Tacitus wrote (Annal. and Lib. De mor.

Germanorum), a region in the Kingdom of Sveonia, called

Semminghundra, witnesses to our days for that old toponym. All the

same are things with the other Svev peoples, which I’ve discussed


§15. Even the Dans neighbour with them; it proves both the

people that remained there and the blood. Why should I recall the land

of their ancestors, since themselves admit what is confirmed by the old

chronicles of Sveonia, the lapse of time, the oral tradition, and the

further course of affairs, and by literary monuments that truth has

clarified beyond any doubts (V. Sambl. Swenst. Cron. in vita Herici

I, at the beginning and Chron. Rhythmis comprehensum in ejusdem

vita) I also have regard to a study recently published by me and

annotated by Rachelius and Hachenbergius; in a book by the latter,

(Orig. Dan. Et Germ., n. XII) the author says: “So, as well as we hear

the Nordic writers asserting about the Dans and their deeds,

we learn that the Goths or the Getae, leaving the Scanzia

Peninsula, led by Erich, occupied firstly the neighbouring islands. It

was then that the Danic (i.e. Danish) Nation has established and the

whole region along the Baltic Sea was alike populated by the Danes

(Danish).” In witness lay the writings of renowned historians, among

which the Danish Saxo Grammaticus, too (History of Dania -Saxonis

Grammatici sialandici viri eloquentissimi, in gesta Danorum,

Francoforti, Apud Andream Wechelum, 1581, lib. II, p.m. 30 ff., but

especially in Book I, T.’s N.), in which it is recounted us about the

undefeated power of the Goths as a certainty.

§16. All the same could be also said about the Moscowers, since

their language drew on the issue of our language; that truth of their

History is confirmed by Sigismundus Baro Herberstenius (of Helmold.

Snorr. Olaf. Tr. and Hervar Saug. Verel., in the notes of c. I, Herv.

Sigism. Bar. Herberst., in Hist. Mosc. and Hachenb., (De orig. Sved.,

chap.XXIII, to the end). Hachenbergius recounts – a report received by

the writers with a unanimous consensus – namely the Goths left our

Sueonia taking with them over the whole Globe the fame and fear of

their name and the fact of being surrounded in everybody’s admiration.

§17. “Nowhere in the world, on the whole Globe, we don’t know

to have been ever mentioned the name of Gotlandia, with its regions

and the name of the Ostrogoths’ land, West Gothia or Wisigothia, in a

context different from that of the power of the boundless Kingdom of

the Goths; and Jornandes, Ablavius, Dion, Procopius, Agathias and

others who wrote about the Goths’ / the Getae’s History claim their

abode to be in that northern part of the world, where the Goths (the

Getae) have settled, for the first time, in ancient times.” Those were the

words of Chytreus (Foreword to Herod. and Thucyd.’s Chron.) What

would I look for more clear or trustworthy? What could be ever said

more favourably about our laws or the local people? If I’m not wrong,

all the same is the meaning of the words in the beginning of the first

chapter cited from Konungs br. EE: “Konungsbr. Twenne aro Gothai

Swerike / Ostgotha och Wästgotha: Ey finds Gotha Nampn i sterom

Land? fast ständande uthan i Swearijke: Forthy at aff them uthspreddis

Gótha Nampn in annor land / som Skrifften sagher.” (“The Goths, so

they have been called until now, are denominated by those two nations

in the Kingdom of Sveonia, the East Goths and the West Goths. And

they don’t even define two different nations that would have remained

as such to our days, but in Sveonia.

So, from them the name of the Goths has spread and propagated

into other regions, as historical documents do assert”). So they became

extinct, since nowhere in our days is anymore used that obsolete name

(of Ostrogoths and Wisigoths). But where it is need to make distinct

the name of that people, it kept, since by arriving at regions very far

from their origin fatherland, they took it with them to Dacia, Moesia,

Italy, Spain and everywhere they settled it has preserved as such.

§18. About in the time of Sarug, the grand grandfather of

Abraham, an exact number of years after the world having been

created by God and / less ICCCC (1900), as recorded in the annals of

the ancient fatherland: “Tha lifde Saruch goder madur / Abraham

Patriarchas fadur fadur”: (The first of the Goths that broke apart were

those leaving the port have arrived at the Baltic Sea shore Baltic Sea).

In the following passage that reached us out of a series of ancient

scrolls, we shall learn some words relating to the foregoing context:

“Aig war i watalum näkor til

er plugum mundi tha wända:

Góthana ginstan Heirikr mild

Tog utan Runung athsämdir.”

(These lines we find rendered in Latin in the History de omnibus

Gothorum Sueonumque regibus by Joannes Magnus Gothus (chap.I,

chap.8, in Vita Erici I):

“The Kingdom of Dania was arranged in colonies .

as long as in the fields of that region

I ordered the Gothic/Getic peoples to live

Yet under no king.”

Comp. with Olahus Magnus, Historia Septentrionalibus regionibus

…‚ c. IV, chap.27, chap.V, chap.1 and Johann. Messen. Spec. Sueon.,

chap.III; Petr Upsal., Chron. Sueon., lib. I, chap.6 and Chron. Dan.,

Hauniae edit, Anno Christi I CCCCXCV (1495), in Vita Humeli).

(The most important thing to be noted in the Gothic -i.e. Getic – text

seems to me to be the word plugum, which Joannes Magnus returned

by the synecdoche agros = “fields”, in accusative, about which we

know to be one of the oldest Geto-Dacian words, plug, which we may

find again in present German in the form of Pflug; the best proof that

things are this way, is that to our days that word presents identically

with the ancient one; besides, that is the case of many other words and

syntagma, among which also the demonstrative pronoun ista, occurring

also in Cato and Plautus, preserved identically especially in the tongue

spoken by the Moldavians and Bukovineans, T.’s N.)

The second abode of the Goths that left their native place was the

Vistula River flowing into the sea nearby the Dantiscus Bay (it is

indeed the port city of Dantzig, situated at the Baltic Sea bay with the

same name, near the mouth of Vistula T.’s N.); the third place where

the Goths settled was Transylvania and Dacia; the fourth in Thrace;

the fifth in Pannonia and Moesia; the sixth in Illyria, finally, the

seventh was in Italy, from which they moved to Gaul and Hispania and

have occupied their regions (that configuration of the Goths’ scattering

over the Globe matches exactly the regions occupied in old times by

the Geto-Dacian-Carpians, Etruscans, Pelasgians and other peoples

related to our ancestors – first of all German, accord. to every ancient

source, starting with Homer and Herodotus; a repetition of ancient

history in the Middle Ages, by the Goths (i.e. the Getae / also the

Getae) is confirmed inclusively by our days English historians; among

which André Maurois, too a name in the matter T.’s N.) See, except the

old authors, already mentioned, and Chron. Vetustum Sveoniae

(chap.II and III), Smabl. Minst.; Klint. Kron. In Vita Er. I, and the

following two kings, where there are also enumerated the subdued

kingdoms as far as Egypt; Minus (Prosody Dissertation) by Kranzius

(Hist. Svec., lib. I, chap.2), Joh. Magn., lib. I, chap.14 ?i 15; L.

Paulinus (Hist. Arct., lib. II, chap.6 ?i 7, lib. III, chap.I and the

following), Joh. Bazius (Hist. Eccles. Sveog., I,1), Lazius (De Migr.

Gent., lib. X)., Werdenhagen (De Rebusp. Hanseat. p. III, chap.1 and

24), Ambros of Mor (Chron. Gent., lib. XI) chap.1 and 12; lib. XII,

chap.16). One should add here also Cassiodorus and Eutropius (in

Gallien.), Jacobus Zieglerus (Scand.), Barcaljus (Icon. Anim.,

chap.VIII, p.m. 97), Hachenbergius (Orig. Germ., n. XII, XIII and the

following) and Tabulas Geog. by Bertius (lib. II, Descript. Goth.) as

regards one of theirs longer expeditions. Hence Hug. Favol. (Theat.

Orb. Terr. Sept. Regn., p. 130):

“Lycaon’s country, neighbouring the Aquarius’ wagon divided into

different sea bays by a huge movement inside it the dauntless

Svedosians (Swedish) and Goths that once subdued the Latin people

with an armed battalion, when the blind fury destroyed with more

boldness the Ausonic shore and orchards by Vandal and Gothic

plunders and which by a long state of liberty stirred the still peoples

and emptied by their own force the old city of Rome.”

All the same says Gulielmus Xylander Augustanus in Epigr. Dist. IV:

“Who doesn’t want to know, from the very origin, the matters and

deeds of the Goths? Scandia, which lies not far from the North Pole,

separates the Teutonic shores from the Baltic Sea. There set out the

great and numerous Gothic people and has spread all over the countries

and by the force of arms surrounded the world as a victor, with huge

harshness devastated everything and subdued kingdoms to himself,

taking possession on peoples and their places – and so, by their own

forces they accomplished everything they wished; witness is the vast

land of the double Sarmatia (a matter of, I guess, both the European

Sarmatia, and the Asian one T.’s N.) and the whole region

neighbouring the Scythian land and all the regions in the east towards

the polar axis and districts in the east towards the polar axis and

districts stretching far away and the long shores of Asia and everything

that may be seen at Pontus Euxinus and up to the Caspian Sea and

Europe with all its peoples, Thracian, Dalmatian, Dacian, and the rich

Gaul with its triple field: Rome itself, the former capital of the world,

was then destroyed, since Italy, once defeated, proved to be weak.”

Yet look how Franciscus Bac. too, De Verulamio (De vicissit.

Rerum ferm., LVI), unwillingly, speaks the truth: “From here it

clearly results that the whole northern region of the world, by its own

nature, is more belligerent: either such quality it can be ascribed due to

the north hemisphere stars or the neighbouring of its circumference in

the northern parts with the southern parts (as shown so far) are almost

occupied by seas; or (which, in fact, is very clear) due to the chill

relating to the northern climate. And just that, from which arise every

other causes, freezes the bodies and sets the souls on fire.” He, the

Goth, had that extraordinary wish to fight, with which they arouse

always and so set out all that violence, as reported. There is yet another

reason: the prevalence of births compelled them to be always in search

of new places to settle, therefore they have spread into other regions,

which they appropriated. Here is what the same Franciscus Bac. says

further in De Verulamio: “Since the lots of warlike populations are

bigger and bigger, as a result of their continuously getting descendants,

the daily food provision being also in the future a hot problem, it was

very naturally for them to always be in search of other and other new

places to settle and to so invade again and again other peoples – which

the northern peoples used to do usually: the destiny being sealed, a part

of house mates remained, yet the other was meant to migrate.”

Yet neither concerning the election of a man worthy to lead they

didn’t fail – even he was previously chosen -(I suspect, in such a

context, the Latin Deus of Deorum migratio, having the meaning of

northern populations migrating towards south: the Getae, Scanzi,

Gothi… T.’s N.), since they were not at once meant to be leaders and

together with an army ready to fight leave our fatherland – if I don’t

speak anymore about it, then the above praised histories speak by

themselves; the one that fate would have touched, that should leave

(and possibly die) in remote regions of the world. Since what belongs

to the first expedition of the gods, possibly to have taken place,

according to a reasonable calculation, – and not how some national

writers have recorded it, in the year 2400 from the Creation of the

World or, according to others, in 2492; a few speak about the year

2527 however, the most of them about 2530 or 2531 – as the above

praised authors recall it. In witness whereof we have also the oldest

laws codices in manuscript (Membranae legum vetustiss.) which

dates it around the year 2200; to which should I firstly consent – hard

to say.

§19. Personally, I adhered to the opinion of those of the most

cultivated writers of all peoples and more ancient than others, relying

on very convincing (and so, trustworthy) things and literary

monuments and whose authority was never doubted any of erudite

literates of the Antiquity; as for me, I am astonished seeing me

opposing a couple of most recent ones, among which the prominent

Bishop Piasecius (Chron. Gest. in Europ. Sing., p.m. 48), Antonius

Bonfinius (Dec. I, Rer. Hung., lib. II, p. 33 and the following.)

Goropius Bekanus (lib. VII in Got. Dan.), Cluverius (Germ. Antiq.,

lib. III, chap.34), Pontanus (Descript. Dan., p. 607 and the following)

and others in what they wrote in the last years, among which also the

illustrious Christophorus Hart Knock (Dissert., III, (De orig. Gent.)

and the most noble Philip. De Waldenfels (Select. Antiquit., lib. X.

chap.9). Since their reasons, – partially ridiculous – , like Piasecius’,

who asserts the Sueons, although living at King Sigismund’s Court,

having not understood the monuments of ancient Goths; partially by

denying the solid data of the Gothic people universal history (see

Bonfinus, Cluverius Pontanus Becanus, etc.); partially, by bonds at all

futile and useless, completely lacking a solid ground, as we can realise

very well. That regarding Cluverius, Pontanus and others I’ve brought

up, shows by nothing to be facile and childish; from public assignment,

it has been rejected by Sheringham (Dict. Discept., chap.XI),

even submitted to discussion in Accusation along with the same

argument used Boxornius in his dissertation; and even these:

Cluverius’ dreams, even about the signs (tracks) of those persisting, by

the winds, even before they being spread, means Grotius (Proleg. ad

hist. Goth.) To those put to Grotius’ account we may add, if we wish

so, an Anticluverius opposed by the same author to Philippus Cluverius

Stiernhielmius (Dissert. I, de Antiquiss. in Scandia sede Gothorum;

d. Diss., p. II), then, I don’t figure how, Johannes Cluverius’ name

crept into; Hachenbergius (Orig. Germ., n. XVII and XVIII) asserts

the ones that hear themselves singing the less do they appear in public

– only with the courage given by the weapons against the clear consent

of the co-nationals and those outside the country. From there it clearly

results how much unequal the debate is and how weak is the one

desiring to combat the truth. The truth is indomitable, it traverses the

centuries, people’s ages and can never get old: slanderous words aimed

at our most noble Scandia. Valdenselsius wished to destroy Kranzius’

elevating belief, since it cannot even be swallowed, and the less

assimilated. Kranzius asserts: “once the Goths have left Scandia.” That

fact is in every respect clear to us and we know it sufficiently. The

issues only are how could it be better proved, how ? The authors’ style,

as I remarked, does not allow us always to pick up accurately the

intents behind their words – then it comes in the fantasy, too. But we

have available some other “monuments” too, which nevertheless

nobody could reject. The matter comes therefore, to appeal to more

clear multiple witnesses (of some writers) or monuments? Happily,

there are fewer those who, disturbed with a passion to great, tried to

mystify all the History. I deem as not being so hard to be traced out

those mystifying historical facts, the History itself, its development

stages, those asserting untruths about the sky, the district, its laying,

localities, about old legislations, customs, rituals, letters (alphabets),

old inscriptions… How easy it is to creep in insults aimed at some

populations, peoples, just because one or another dictate you to do so,

for arbitrary reasons, yet known by him, this way making the own will

of “someone” rule. Valdensensius goes on: “At first their origin and

arrival is demonstrated”, and then other things. Others instead put first

the human factor, i.e. what is more human, a thing that Kranzius

omitted. It could so be counted by others with the bad habits, by those

granting more attention that factor, so that, given their large belief in

the inter-humane relations, its absence, they think, could draw them

back. In my view, such error crept up on the most brilliant man due to

his mind being less care with that aspect, despite he having dealt

extensively and for long time with every aspect of that matter.

Here we have it more extensive pleaded: “It is almost incredible,

but the Scandinavian soil is incredible hard, as in fact it has

constituted in time immemorial, yet well and carefully prepared and

planted, it bears fruits plentifully.” I do believe it: It meaning that,

poor us, we feed (i.e. survive) by digging and cutting in grim rock at

great pains to bring something out of the ploughed land, or: “once the

miserable soil defeated, by our hard labour, it gives us produce and

fruits, even abundantly, and our animals graze the grass with pulled out


And the fruits so obtained from the arid soil crust – being

unknown to us, new types of cultivating the field by other means – we

are judged, through that worthy of pity way without Ceres, or Bacchus,

northern Venus freezes us, relating all these to, as they stand, that

passage in Terentius’, which even Cicero (De natura Deorum,

chap.II) praises: “Sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus” (“Venus freezes

us with no grains and wine”). . And yet here too it is said, when,

instead of the remains of the Kingdom of Scandinavia, an empire was

born, of Sveonia, stretching out into the exterior: “The district of

Sveonia is very fertile, the field gives us fruits and honey. And besides

the lambs walking in front of the sheep flock, we also have a great

richness of rivers and forests and the whole district abounds in

peregrine merchandise; so it cannot be said the Sveons lack any

richness, save for one – which we honour or rather adore – proud. The

girls are virgin when they marry.” These words belong to Adamus

Bremensis (De situ Dan. et reliq. sept. Reg. , chap.LXXXIV and the

following). Let’s add here also Diodorus Siculus (Bibl. Hist., II, p.m.

91) in whose work our land is described as one in which “…

.at’ et.. e.fe.e.. .a.p…” (“the trees bear fruits all the year

around”). All the same asserts Plutarch (De Fac. in orb. Lun., p.m.

941), reinforcing the idea of many of those coming to visit us remain

with us: “t… µe. .p. s..e.e.a. t… de, .t. p…. d..a .a.

p.a.µat.. af…a pa.ta p… ..s.a.. .a. ……a..”

(“some, as a result of a shared living (therefore marriages took place,

too, T.’s N.), others due to shared hard labour and fatigue lacking envy,

since, everything being available in abundance, they were rewarded

without discrimination and because there was a mutual need, we

needed them and also they needed us, in sacrifices and choirs


And they all praised and hailed those fertile fields, as the above

quoted proofs claim, many of which being very convincing; until our

country did not adhere to the Christian religion and the geniuses or

disciplines were not bound to a certain geographical space. And I

hardly believe that since the receipt of the sacred Christianity the soil

became very hard and was stripped of every natural quality. See the

foreword – annexe to the Great ancient Chronicle of Sveonia,

completely worthy to be known, containing the things necessary for a

decree, including denigrations and insolence aroused by envy

(Kijnikronikon); by them, neither the sky of Sveonia became warmer,

nor the soil more fertile. It is also worthy reading some other foreign

writers, and among them especially Bertius (Tab. Geogr., lib. II,

Descript. Sveciae), who speaks as follows: “It is the most fertile

district from all northern countries: the land is very fertile, it has large

lakes, rivers full of different fish species; we got metals: lead, iron,

copper and silver that are extracted near Salburg, woods full of beasts

with dear furs and beehives with noble bees.”10 This is why I made

reference to those authors: the things they assert are neither

questionable nor obscure. Only in duke Valdenselsius’ acceptation our

fatherland’s soil is presented in the negative; by all the others is

presented positively. There are still uncounted people belonging to

different foreign peoples that our country fertility has invited, and

whose opinion does not differ from ours and the true things are

described accordingly, writers that can also judge with the eyes of their

minds and whose works are drawn up based on a special erudition, yet

also a good faith. There are currently “patrons” of a contrary opinion

lacking good faith, in spite of having available ancient documents

proving that historical truth. And, in fact, nobody can doubt, now and

here, an examination carried out by young and old fellows, which, by

right, prove that who wants, can rely on the joint opinions of all in the

ancient times. Praiseworthy books are already in circulation and, why

not, even today; the sluggish hands of our former fighters and sturdy

men languish, and at war they were more reliable, being in danger and

putting others’ lives at risk. In spite of the inhabitants of the

Scandinavian Peninsula being called with a generic term Scandians,

the Sueons differ however from the other peoples and nations. Untill

now, same numerous as the Sueons widespread in the world are the

sheep flocks and even after the belief in Christ has spread, the

SCANDIANS, but not the Swedish, yet are not satisfied with one

spouse, they being surrounded with many a wife, officially wedded,

like in the past, too (see Tacit., De mor. Germ., chap.XVIII) more

frequent in the villages than in towns; the Swedish were the single ones

to be satisfied with one spouse; while with the other peoples and

especially among the soldiers, the number of spouses starts from three

and amounts to six, seven; the polygamy is still a habit, especially in

villages. The fact that among the Swedish the monogamy is customary,

we have it confirmed by the ancient documents, and even by the actual,

invincible King of Sweden, Carolus XI and his father, Carolus Gustav,

as well as the recently published war memories of several warriors:

the polygamy, neither it was allowed, nor wished by the Swedish. Here

it is what Kranzius wrote (C.T., chap.1) about Sweden, fully agreeing

with the opinions of all writers: “… so, by right, it is fitting to bring a

special praise the people of Svecia, which raises above any other

peoples of the Goths, from which it draws, since time immemorial; it

emigrated in Asia, which it reigned for a long time and in Europe for

centuries in a file, setting up kingdoms in many districts.” As

demonstrated therefore, it should not be trusted easily every word and

regardless of the mouths uttering it. Let’s give due attention the

brilliant Hachenbergius, whose words are a true legal guarantee (Orig.

Svediae, chap.XXI): “The most powerful and noble nation among the

Gothic people always was the one appeared on the Swedish soil – that

was their proud (an effect to which every sources – both native and

foreign – agree, it being a truth backed by facts, (T.’s N.)”

§20. Here it is picture of the Sueons’ and Goths’ movement in

Dania, Germany, Britain, Scottland, Gaul, Italy, Hispania, Lusitania,

Catalonia, Thrace, Greece, Phrygia, Taurical Chersonesus, Russia and

in other regions, they being spread almost all over the Globe. Whether

America, as it is called now, was unknown and inaccessible to the

Sueons and Scythians? I confess there are different opinions of

different fellows, on the time when that huge part of the Globe began

being occupied and inhabited: when the natives arrived there or from

what part of the world they arrived there, that is of the recent

discovered inhabitants of the Earth (out of which seven are however

deemed to be more important). Since the first opinion belongs to those

deeming America only began to be inhabited after Noah’s Flood, the

scattering of the peoples and confusion of languages, it laying at the

base of a fact: infinite crowds and kinds of inhabitants disseminated in

America – hence a diversity of idioms, from its aborigines, or from the

Europeans, or from other ethnical groups, and also with very important

differences between them; a second opinion says the Americans have

their origins in Noah’s son, Chamus and as an offspring of those being

driven away from their dwellings, JOSUA DUX (Jews’ chief after

Moses and conqueror of the Country of Canaan. According to the

Bible, he is the one fighting against Adonisedech, King of Jerusalem,

and commands the Sun to halt to so allow him to complete his victory,

T.’s N.) placed in front of those banished, led them through a lot of

roaming and wandering, to these new “American” lands, such lands

becoming their new dwelling places. A third is ascribed to the

Israelites, out of which ten tribes have been firstly led to Assyria and

from there thrown into many dwellings and scattered in different places

of the Earth, and finally they would seize America. A forth claims the

Americans being Tartars, because Asia, which stretches towards north,

its terminal district would be America. A fifth claims the Americans

draw from the Phoenicians, the reasons of which draw their sap from,

among others, the Mexicans’ habits that have been taken from the

Phoenicians, whose language, and other things, resemble those of the

Americans. A sixth claims the Americans, inhabiting predilectly the

Panama Isthmus – as neighbours of the Panamanians – arrived there

from Norway via Iceland and Greenland. The inhabitants of Yucatan,

however their neighbours, originate in Ethiopia. The Peruans

themselves, as they are called today, draw their name from the Sinens

(Chinese?) of the southern districts and from other peoples living in the

same districts, up to the Strait of Magellan. In fact, after the Deluge,

and maybe just as a result thereof, by land, by sea, through unforeseen

circumstances, by laws, in America have penetrated animals and

people, in different periods of time, those ethnical groups that have

been banished by such nations where they originated in. Here it should

be retained the opinion that we have established the first American area

having ever been cultivated was the northern part and only after that,

and, from there, the migration extended towards the southern area;

therefore, from the west arrived the Phoenicians, from north the

Scythians (so, inclusively the Getae, T.’s N.), from the east the

Chinese; according to Johan. Ler. (Hist. Navig. in Brasil, chap.XVI),

Gom. (Hist. Ind., lib. V, chap.15; lib. VI. chap.5), Brul. (Histor.

Peruan., lib. I, chap.1), Acost. (De Nat. N. O., lib. I, chap.25), Freder.

(Lum. de B. ext., I, II, chap.8), Grot. (Diss. de orig. Gent. Am.), Joh.

de Laet. (in the notes of the same dissertation), Marc. Lescarb. (Hist.

Nov. Fr., lib. I, chap.3), Horn. (De orig. Gent. Amer.), and Joh.

Hornbeck (De Convers. Ind., lib. I, chap.9) – in which it is

demonstrated the agreement of their opinion with the Hornian one.

§21. What should be retained first of all is not only the historical

truth that our Scythian ancestors have spread all over the Earth, but

also that – a first ranking argument – , they had a very strong fleet and

they were the most bold navigators and by taking the stars as a guide,

they left to know other districts complete unknown to others – and this

not only out of a pirate’s spirit or a wish of being praised, as more

especially others would enjoy the wealth that they, by their searches

and discoveries – made available. Let’s call in witness Aratus, the

Greek poet and astronomer of Cilicia (“Get on board the ship, the

Scythians navigate in the deep night, / but that star shines more than all

the others, / and it is seen at once in the night to be the first, / and,

small as it is, of great use to the boatsmen it is.”), who recounts about

the Ursas – the northern constellation after which the Scythians guided

themselves, accord. to Cicero (lib. II, d. N. D., p.m. 46 and the

following; Sen. Med. V.309 and 318 and Farnab’s Notes, chap.X. Kon.

Br.) We have in witness the annals of our ancestors, old national

legislations on naval expeditions and the lawgivers’ admiration for

Scythians’ skills of very good navigators. I call in witness Arngrimus,

too (Descript. Island., chap.I) and Petrus Claudius (Norveg.,

chap.XXX) as regards the art with which our ancestors mastered the

sea; this skill with nautical matters is also immortalised by ancient

inscriptions scratched in rocks, in which the Scythian is shown as the

most trained ship commander; 2) in search of new districts to settle, on

sea and land, the natives crowd united to leave Sveonia towards other

shores, as submitted in the foregoing; 3) The most famous crossings

performed in ancient times, have been those from Norway to Iceland,

Greenland and neighbouring places; besides the History of those

districts, we have in witness some very erudite people’s works

referring to Norwegians, Danes and other northern peoples, which not

only under the coutume of the Sueons, but also under a decree by the

committees in Uppsala, have thereafter met with everybody’s extolling

approval; the then Norway (Norrigia, in the text), along with other

kingdoms, out of a great respect for their reign, has been submitted to

them. As for Iceland (which has been called so for the first time by its

discoverer, Garderus Gardsholm), since the 8th century from the birth

of Christ, we receive it as populated as it is;4) the religion of the

Americans is different, but inclines to the northern, because they took it

from our Scythians in ancient times, should we trust the historians.

That opinion is shared also by the Hugo Grotius and the

illustrious Hornius, here above cited and by others, whose arguments

you will find and did already in this work, since they have been in vain

rejected by some. Why so? 6) Because our ancestors’ expedition to far

Indies, Indialand, is mentioned in the oldest histories of their

fatherland. Since what else is talking about the legend of Remunda and

Thorsten, son of the Vikings (Remunda et Thorstens Viikingssons) and

in many passages of the history. Yet there it is narrated not only about

the true India, but also about some other places in Orient; it can be

inferred even the name of true India draws from the opposite

settlement. How vast the Empire of Sueons was – from the Indian

waters to the shores of Germany – we learn such also from Pomponius

Mela (lib. III, chap.5) and Plinius (chap.II, chap.67), as well as

Cornelius Nepos (Fragm., p.m. 417), as well as from different notes.

Compare then the texts of the foregoing to those of Colerus,

commenting the Germana by Tacitus (chap.XLVI), since Svetia joined

the neighbouring islands and was surrounded by a boundless sea. What

should I say about the Sueons’ or Scythians’ richness in gold (p… de

a..t.. t.. ….p.., “from the north of Europe”), in which they had

then abundantly available, as Herodotus directly acknowledges (III,

chap.96; IV, chap.13), he himself not knowing where such lots of gold

should have come from.

The Greeks called them,. and our writers Grypar. And

these are, as Scaliger recounts, in Plautus’ Aulularia (IV, 8,1), those

believed to extract gold from the Hyperborean mountains; according to

Nonius (ad h. I), the name of Pici (a population by the Sea of Azov,

according to Plin. VI. 21) T.’s N.) is given to those extracting the gold

from the mountains. Look how rich Scythia was, where in our days

still are discovered, one by one, new gold veins; we have in evidence

the instruments and golden jewellery of different weights, discovered

in different places, some of them in large number, the evidence being

offered by the Uppsala temple itself, the Hlidskialf, “naus”, of which is

made of the most pure indigenous gold, …se.. as Diodorus Siculus

(I, p.m. 9) says. Besides them, how many ever others, forgotten in the

meanwhile and maybe it would have been fitting having commented

more zealously and largely; yet in that space only one passage has been

mentioned. In such a way daring and acting the Getic State appeared at

the same time. And, in its hugeness it is found that finally it has grown;

wherefrom, how?

From a demand and need to have by home soldiers, since dealing

with a district situated in the midst of the enemies, it should be acted

with bravery, with force; so did the Goths always fight (meaning the

Getae’s descendants, T.’s N.), disdaining the fear, obsequiousness. I

said with boldness and power, exactly how old documents say; their

deeds, the wars they carried, are by all means praiseworthy, since in

the matters requiring haste it is need especially of courage and

boldness. I cannot agree with those for which it is with great effort to

consent to such fact, in fact. Since, Look how Livius, is characterising

us (lib. XXV, chap.38). “Since yesterday, when I signalled the warding

off of the violent enemy trailing you, you had not to break your

courage, since I wanted you would scatter with the greatest honour and

in our favour.” And no long thereafter: “I know, the courage is deemed

as an advice: but in very hard circumstances, even with a very weak

hope, is a replacement for the most strong and sure advice.” Propertius

(lib. II, Elegia 8): “Even when your powers ran out, but the courage

controls you, it is praisable, since in great circumstances the will

suffice.” Plautus (Mil. III, 2, 33): “Come on! Speak out with courage.”

Cicero (Ad. Brut., Ep. IV): “And just how I said boldly.” Caesar (De

B. C., lib. I): “They would like to express their opinions courageously

and powerful.” Quintilian (Dial. de orat., chap.XVIII): “Act more

powerful and courageously.“ Justinus (Praef., 2): “Herculean

boldness.” Curtius (lib. IV, chap.9): “Had the conqueror’s courage been

present, the army could be defeated.” And again: “Dare in such a

manner as to win; despise the arrow when aimed at some powerful

men like you.“ Justinus (lib. V, chap.9): “You have to be courageous

when it comes to the fatherland, common save, even put at risk.” Ovid

(Fr. II): “The fate and Zeus take the side of those daring.”

By such quotations from classical writers I think I have argued

enough the way we should construe the Goths’/Getae’s nature and

facts, since the participle daring, a feature of my people, opposes fully

the shy, the humble, the fallen down, the disheartened. Here it is how

Bazius, Bishop of Wexion (Ist. Eccles. Sveo-Goth., chap.I, to the end)

in the following context, invokes the figure of Alphonsus

Cartagenensus, the poet (H., chap.VI): “The Goth despises a death that

came through a extolled wound.” It is the same author who glorifies

the powers of the Gothic people, both military and civil, to the greatest




§1. There are a few denying the oldness of our laws, in front of

which being Coringius (Hermann Conring – 1606-1681- the founder of

German law history; his main work is De origine juris germanici (On

the Origins of the German Law), 1643, T.’s N.) His main reason is the

Goths (the Getae) did not have letters in those times. Such reason is

obviously false, since the use of the Gothic (= Getic) letters in our

fatherland is ancient. Lex Attinis, lex lata which Messenius

demonstrates. The Greeks and other peoples took the letters (the

alphabet) from the Getae. In Herodotus and Diodorus we may find

direct opinions on the spread of such letters §2. Another argument of

Conringius – a lighter pen. §3. Under the influence of the ancient

writers claiming the writing having appeared firstly with the Getae,

Jornandes (in Lundius we only shall find the name under that form,

while with us JORDANES has established, T.’s N.) recommends in

every conviction the written laws of Zamolxis and Diceneus.

Bellagines should be more accurately called BIJLAGINES, according

to the hand written codices. Vulcanius’ account. §4. What is a Vittod?

What is Lagh and what Biuths? What’s the origin of Lagh? §5. Bureus

(a jurist) is praised. It is explained the ancient law of the Visigoths

outside the Kingdom the native Goths. In the old documents there are

mentioned often incursions made by our ancestors in Greece. When

have been perfected the law codices of the Western Goths by the

provincial lawyers? §6. The province Judges the did not enjoy the

same power as the Roman praetors did. I the Roman Law the Empire

authority was attributed to the praetors. §7. The authority and the

Power a…te.t….. (architecturally, i.e. perfectly structured like an

edifice, like a column in a temple, T.’s N.), in our fatherland have

always been ascribed only to the kings and the citizens have never

been inquired. The definition of authority is given depending on the

facts, objective or personal. Whether the subject of Majesty is

duplicitary, as Grotius asserts, therefore communitary and proper?

Formerly nothing would be undertaken by the Svions Kings without

having firstly consulted The Counsel of Friends. Not even such thing

– the imperial budget – was subjected for decision since the counsels

and ministers didn’t take part in the leadership, they were not de facto


§8. The laws were kept in holiness with the old people, since

they have been recited for many years in a row, thus well known (such

custom reminds us Teopomp’s assertion regarding the Getae’s learning

by heart of the laws; this way passing from a generation to the next

one, T.’s N.) A truth carefully checked has no need of other

explanations. §9 and 10. Anni (i.e. years) that are called ar with us,

correspond to a common, ritual revolution that occurring with the

Goths (Getae); Greeks and Romans, it matches expositio, construed

about at random; in fact the year finished with the summer, that’s why

it was called also the summer year or simply summer, when court of

law and other law offices were closed, because they took their leave of

absence, both the Romans, refused to give law advice in summer. §11.

The number of Assesors and Counsels was of twelve; it has remained

ever since; sometimes it was allowed ten, but never eleven. Why today

too, one of that College of Assesors (called Nembdam), meaning that

territorial, is called DOMARE? One thing it was understood (from the

first judgements rendered) by condemning or acquitting and something

else from those judgements that should appealed. “An nat waria oc

falla: annat doma.” Why are the condemning and acquitting

judgements at par? Why and how should be condemned by different

punishments? Whether a judgement rendered by a President is

stronger? §12. Jureiurando (taking an oath) it should be taken even

after the judgement is rendered. Jurisjurandi was a solemn formula in

our homeland: the Greek took it from us, it passed then to other

peoples. The special place that Plato occupies. The legitime ones, about

which even Cornelius Nepos speaks. The attendance of eleven men was

required in case of people being condemned to public ordeal. Those

prefect, in old Bircensic laws, was called Stupagreswe. The reason for

such name. §13 ?i 14. There is yet another, very old, law called

Iarnbyrd, belonging to the form of trial, which also had its importance.

§1. It should be clear for everybody, those which the Antiquity

called with chosen veneration Getae, the writers have called thereafter,

by unanimous consent, Goths. In that respect there were a great deal of

writers, the most different ones. and I didn’t count them all. Goths (the

Getae) exceeded, in glory and exploits, every peoples and nations, until

today; the most, recounting the wars and battles carried by the Goths

(and Getae), remain astonished and full of admiration with them. Never

have been written so many literary and historical works, never have been

promulgated so many civil and sacred laws – they are unparalleled in the


About all these we have in witness so many literary manners

speaking of those ancient times. From there, and just the misjudged

Andreas Bureus (Descript. Sueon. Polit., p. m 20), whose words,

followed step by step, we find they don’t divert from the truth: “The

fact that the oldness of our west gothic laws should be counted since

the Goths set out of here or not longer thereafter, is doubtless, since we

have in evidence the presence of the Goths in Greece and Thrace,

where they have settled.” With them side by side, or at least at the

same level would be positioned illustrious Hermannus Conringius (De

orig. Jur. Germ., chap.V). And that dispute, shows as instrumented: if

recourse has been taken to ridicule games only, a few weapons,

scenical devices, overlooking serious things; those Herculeans have

been not considered, set aside forthwith. hence the first claim, yet very

vehement No doubt before Wulfila, these were the Runes the northern

peoples used; and Wulfila would not even have occurred to invent new

characters, if the Goths already used the Runes (but, as we learn it

from Bonaventura Vulcanius’ book, De literis et lingua Getarum sive

Gothorum, Lyon, 1597 and from that by Johannes Magnus, Gothus,

Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus, Roma, 1554,

a book in which it has been published, for the first time, both the Getic

alphabet, and the laws of Zamolxis, Wulfila used the Getic alphabet to

create the Gothic one, in which he then “translated” the Bible, known

by the name of Codex argenteus, T.’s N.) So, the Goths might have

not on that times, neither an alphabet nor written laws, Those would

born since Wulfila, i.e. about the year 460. Conringius relies also on

the accounts of Soganienus (a Greek historian of the 5th century, T.’s

N.) in his Ecclesiastical History (VI, 37), praises Wulfila for his merit

of being the first inventor of the Gothic alphabet and the translator of

the Bible using that alphabet… And thereafter, through a little

avoidance, he adds impetuously: “Wulfila indeed was not the first to

conceive and perfect the Gothic letters, he only developed and adapted

the Greek ones, discovering the f and T .” Claudius, likewise the

commenter of Tacitus’ Annals (XI, 14) who would have discovered

three new letters and added them to the number of those old Latin,

letters which, he says, are very necessary. About their forms, see

Vertranius. Sure thing, the use of a phonetic alphabet by the Getae in

our country (i.e. Sweden) dates immediately after the Deluge, an

alphabet discovered on some splendid rocks, of a considerable size, as

recounted us very clearly Joannes Magnus (Historia de omnibus

Gothorum Sueonumque regibus, Roma, 1554, book I, chap.7,

here too are published the Laws of Zamolxis, T.’s N.): To be

added, For the same reason, the law of the first Attin, which Messenius

remarks in Joannes Martinus’ Chronicles and which fully correspond

with the oldest codices of national laws: this law of a great richness

has been elaborated in the 18th century from the Creation of World.

Why so? Because it proves, Stiernhielmius deems the Greek language

to be the same of the old Goths (i.e. the Getae). And, to avoid doubting

of anything, the letters of that language, as of the others, nevertheless

have been taken from the Getae (Not only Lundius, but also M. Crisan

claims such thing in all the lectures she presented at international

congresses this year, Targoviste, Constantza, Bucharest, already

published, T.’s N.) And, closest to my heart, and to left nothing

unclear in respect of the letters of that language, all of which coming

from the Getae as however in the case of any other alphabets see what

has to say Cl. Rudbeckius in his Atlantic, where that truth is proved

with a power at all apart. But also Cl. Salmasius says it clearly and

directly, that first people that ever populated Greece and are authors

too of the Helenic language, were those coming from the north and

Scythical region. And same are things as regards other things (to say

nothing about Palamede or Simonide) – without a solid reason you

probably will take objection and insist on this: this would have been

Cadmus, who ever first would bring the letters from Phoenicia to

Greece, yet by that it could be not denied that the first letters did not

appear with the northern peoples, as appraises here above the

mentioned Rudbeckius. Since by right the old Herodotus V, 58) clearly

confesses the Greeks, before using the letters brought from the

Phoenicians by Cadmus, have improved them somehow (have adapted

to their language). .eta….µ…, meaning “I adjust”, “I adapt”, “I

correct”; µeta….µ.sa.te., says Herodotus, sfe.. ….a, i.e.

bringing some of them light changes; sfe.. is an Ionic used instead

of a.t.. = “to themselves” / “to the same”; the popular interpretation

is less successful: “upon making some changes here, and there, they

starting using them.” About in the same way expressed Diodorus

Siculus. V, p. 235, Edit. Laur. Rhodom.): “… e. a…. e..e..,

a..a t… t.p… t..

..aµµat.. µeta.e..a. µ…. ” (“not they – the Phoenicians – have

been the first to invent them, but instead the first to use them”). And

the letters themselves, out of respect for the truth, show you, since they

are pretty convincing. In that respect, even Tacitus (Annal. d.l. XI)

chap.13, in the end) quite justified,

recalls the Greek literature as being not absolute and immutable.

According to the opinions of many theologists, The Phoenicians should

have taken the letters from the Jews, and the Jews from Moses The

positioning is not to be denied; The earth and its shaft inclined towards

east, end in Arabia; in the south is Egypt; to the west, the Phoenicians

and the sea; to the north, to the side, along Syria, according to Tacitus

(Hist., lib. V, chap.6, Annal., l.d. XI) chap.14; see also Eupol. Lib. de

regibus, Clement. Strom., lib. I, Horn De convers Ind., lib. I, chap.4).

Those asserting the Phoenician letters should come to Greece via

Egypt, assert too the vanity of the Egyptians, since it is obvious the

letters’ inventors could be some ones, yet the Greeks might have

received them from others (in this case, the Getae, and the Greeks

would not received them directly from them, but instead through the

Phoenicians or Egyptians; yet since the Getae already have lived in

Greece in the Antiquity, it was quite normally the things are as above

shown; then, in a second wave, they might be brought also by

Cadmus, T.’s N.)

§2. However, Conringius stands firmly on the same position,

asserting that before the Sueons and Goths, the Danes, (i.e. the Dacians

of West Dacia, our days Denmark, T.’s N.) have been those to use, the

first, written laws: “… as it was usually for the first authors of laws to

praise the kings, Valdemar I and Valdemar II to the names of which

add also the adjectives Scanicae and Sialandicae, as the case of the law

passed in 1163 was, under Valdemar I, and Cimbricae (in our laws it

occurs under the name of Jutarum, “West Dacia”), the case of a law

passed in 1240, under Valdemar II and such laws were, in greater part,

billed after the pattern of the Saxon jurisdiction, as Arnoldus

Huitfeldius recounts, Grand Chancellor of the King of Dania” (Praef.

Leg. Prov. Fion.) But ending in un experienced hands, it was simply to

agree to such right (law), as it could be seen, either being in question

princely correctors, or too zealous authors that situated themselves

above the kings, praised above by Conringius. But in the beginning

there was no need of a consensus, since among other things, and by

different ways of pleading and allowing spaced hearings in rendering

the decisions in legal cases concerning with the profane cult of the

gods, these having been received from those having a power to discern

or applauding or rejecting blatantly that decision (I am not sure that I

understood correctly the sentence, T.’s N.) Thus it is a great

undertaking to make an incursion into the old history of a very

cultivated people, with which there have been laws of the kind we


And what belongs apart to the Scans (Scandinavians) sure they

are very similar to those of the Goths, because by simply comparing

the laws, I deem everything clarifies quite well, which, as they are, are

censored through the erudition of those laws. And yet it is not

surprising, since long time ago Scania was a part in the Kingdom, it

was the pantry of Gothia (a true pantry where the foods were kept for

the Goths). King Amundus / Slemme/ was the one to have separated

Gothia from the other countries, by boundaries, See also the law

fragments enclosed to the west Gothic laws: Am gamble Wästgiotha

Kämärken emillan Swerige och Danmarck (“On the old boundaries of

West Gothia with Sueonia and Dania”). As for the laws of the Danes

(West Dacians), imagine a confusing jam of words (in the text it is

verbotenus, a word not occurring in Quicherat, T.’s N.), because

distinguished Conringius understands in that way (a thing you cannot

agree to without blushing); maybe just for that reason it is not followed

seriously, since even relating to the Sueons and Goths, before the clear

words about the laws, the confidence in the authors is invincible and

by a very assuring permanence of certain archive documents it can be

drawn unhesitatingly a solid conclusion.

§3. How clear Jornandes describes Diceneus as a philosopher

(who in Strabo (lib. VII, 16 and XVI) is called .e.a..e… How his co

nationals lived under the laws he made, which being written have been

called until today Bellagine. What wants to mean truly the word

Bellagines or Bylagines, like it occurs in manuscript codices, the wise

and most famous man of letters and science Bonaventura Vulcanius, in

his notes to Jornandes (p.m. 179 and the following.) deems Bylagines

as not being a Gothic word, but instead a corrupted word proceeding

from the Gothic language. Thinks the things stood as follows:

“Welhagen is the contrasted form – for reasons of economy of language

– of Welbehagen, meaning “well”, “very pleasant” and in fact

Bellagines are nothing else than the principle of one’s will.” Yet in the

annotations made to Paulus Warnefridus (De reb. Gest. Longob., lib.

IV, p.m. 281) it is asserted that by the word Bylagines it is meant

quaerendum (“what should be searched/ wished/ wanted”, T.’s N.) Cl.

Verelius, in a letter exchange between me and him, is of the opinion

that, in consensus with every manuscript works, by Bylagines cannot

be understood anything else, with the old ones than the civil law: this

way conceive the fatherland laws our scholars The submission by the

illustrious Vulcanius, beyond the novelty of the subject, keeps us

informed with unpublished writings, with vestiges of a inestimable

cultural, scientific value.

My opinions appear in the foreword of Verelianus’ book, which

now possesses distinguished Wolff, on which also Verelius’ hand

writing is clearly to be noted. Let us go straight to the point! In the

legal fragments of our ancient fatherland occurs especially the same

..s.. (“word”, “speech”), which alike prove the printed laws

(chap.XV, Tinghr.; Wessman l. chap.XIX, Tinfbr., Wesig.)

§4. But with the Goths (i.e. the Getae) these laws have been

denied (rejected), while using them; yet in the time of Diceneus, they

enjoyed a period of maximum flourishing; Vittod was not understood

by them as the Latin Lag, but using such word in speaking, since often

the word Vittod appeared instead of Lag; among others, it appears also

in Wulfila’s writings, and not only Vittod, but also biuths, which was

used by the old ones, instead of Lag, from the Gothic word Biuthan,

meaning “to command”; Just for that reason the unwritten law or habit/

custom/ coutume was often called biuths (see also Stiernhook, De jur.

Vet. Sueonum Gothorumque, lib. I, chap.1). Here is an example:

“Because, not without a reason, in lieu of the law it is being maintained

the “plain” coutume (consuetudo) it meaning a right created by the

custom.” (see also “the custom of the land” in our legislation, T.’s N.),

Julianus is emphasizing it (XXXII, D. de legibus), where, after a few

interpolations, the following: “Thus, here it is the important thing:

whether by a suffrage do people express their will and not through the

things themselves and deeds? Of course! Just for that reason it has

been remarked such thing, very right indeed, that laws can be repealed

not only by a law giver’s suffrage, yet also a quiet consensus, i.e.

breaking from a habit..” This meaning not at all that Lag was then

disregarded by the Goths. Like biuths comes from biuthan /biuda,

similarly Lag comes from Lagian / Laga. It is due showing here, first

of all, that it is a false idea that of lag having a Roman origin.

“Because Lag, no longer in use today, more used being lägh , means

“humble”, “ruined”, “fallen”, exactly with the same meaning it occurs

in Virgil (Ecl., II, idem, lib. XII, Aeneid. to the end, accord. to Liv.

Lib. VIII, chap.35, Nep. Atit. CXII, Cic., Orat., III and VI, In Verr.,

p.m. 108, lib. IV, Orat., X. p. 261, lib. I, De Invent., p. 71 et lib. I, p.

118, as well as la Heren., lib. I, p. 7). Here it is the example taken

from Virgil (Ecl. XI) where to the Latin adjective humble, fallen,

corresponds the Gothic lägh: “Humiles habitare casas. Et / Ille humilis,

supplexque, oculos dextramque, precantem Protendes; equidem merui,

nec deprecor, inquit; utere sorte tua. ”

(“The humble ones live in huts. And the humble one, rising his

hands and eyes, imploring the compassion, says: I do not ask you to

take pity on me, I deserved my fate; enjoy your fate!”), at which it

should be remarked at the same time the difference between the verb

precari (“to ask”, “to entreat through supplications”) and deprecari

(“to divert someone from his way through entreats”). Therefore Liggia

means jacere and cubare, “to lie”, “to be laid up”, while Läggia =

ponere, locare = “to put”, “to place”; laga = fundare, disponere =

ordinare = “to settle”, “to lay solidly”, “to put in order”, “to arrange.”

Whereas let us look at Cato (De re rustica, in the beginning), as he

says: “Majores nostri sic habuere et sic in legibus statuere” (= The

way our ancestors administrated, likewise they stated through laws).

Why so? Because lagian occurs in Wulfila, instead of the Latin

ordinare “to put in order”, since that seems to have been used even by

those Goths then living outside their national boundaries, therefore

their language, due to their living mixed up with other peoples, was

mixed, too; yet I don’t deny that even in the previous ages it was

corrupt. The most important thing, as we can see, is that our law (jus)

called Lag. In Birgerus’ foreword to Royal Uplandic Laws (?) we can

read as follows: “Land skulu med Lagum byggias / och ey med

wäldzwärkum: ty att tha stande Land wäl / tha lagum filgies” (“The

regions need laws not stated by the force, since their safeguard is being

intended through the coutume / correct interpretation of the laws”). For

that reason it is need for explanation words of a kind as those occurring

in the prologue of the Wessmanic laws (?). For a quite justified reason,

we would find added at the end of Helsingius’ laws preamble: “Wari ey

lag ä Lande / tha gate engin boodz firi” (“if a law is not in force in the

province, then nobody is required to make use of its essence”). In the

foreword of Waldemar II (in Leg. Jur.) it is written as follows: “Wet

lod skal mand Land bygge.” On law should duly rely both the province

(region) and the population. Look what Emperor Justinian says in

Digests to Tribonians (a Collection of decisions made by the most

brilliant Roman legal advisors, drawn up at Justinian’s order;

Tribonianus was the most famous lawyer under the same emperor, for

such reason the corps, his college got the epithet of tribonian, T.’s N.):

“the authority of the laws lays in their correctly putting in order both

the divine and human affairs.” Yet most correctly says it Samuel

Puffendorf (1622-1694, a German publicist and author of a work titled

Right of Nature and Men, T.’s N.) who, (in J.N. et G., lib. VII, chap.1

and the last to the end), emphasizes: “Since Plutarch has considered the

things with great wisdom, given people’s propensity to obligations far

beyond their natural powers, when he deemed as being abolished the

civic laws (the civil law), the honour and peace of mankind can be

instituted, by the decrees of Parmenide, Socrates, Plato and Heraclit.

“So, that is the effect of the laws: the holy and secret things

should be disclosed to the justice, since always it should be acted with

religious feeling and respect towards the ones good and righteous, only

that way they being able to be heard with the greatest sense of

responsibility – since “..µµata .. pa.a … Te…

..µ…µe.a” (“the legislative standards should be consistent with the


§5. Right from the first chapter of the Law Codex of the Western

Goths, collected by different magistrates of that region, Bureus notes

the Goths’ migration to Greece and Thrace. A chapter, frankly

speaking, full of anxiousness, since deals with their leave of their

fatherland for the Holy Land, from where some of them, after having

carried battles with a number of oriental emperors, while crossing their

countries, returned home to their Kingdom, yet others have settled in

the countries of those. Who could conceive with his mind and put

down with a reed pen the percentage of errors contained by all those?

Yet from the foregoing rows it ensues they must have left for religious

reasons. What do you think? Are you sure of what you are saying?

Ponder over, I beg you, everything, so that not to be disappointed at the

confusion you made of the correct and vicious laws. Should you

consult the old manuscripts, so you would see only being two laws

differing particularly: one of them is very old, and the other is of a date

more recent. The one on the well-known leave of the Goths (Getae),

which I’ve mentioned above. is demonstrated in absolutely convincing

words, as set forth too in the following text: “Ingsins mans Arf taker

then Man i Gircklandi sittr” (“So nobody at all has a right to claim a

title to inheritance inside that kingdom, once he established his

residence in Greece”). And now, look how it is pleaded the cause of

those that left very recent. “Wänder man hál oc nacka at hemkyunum /

oc stiger fotum af fosterlandi: ther skulu arwer wara ?r skyldasti waru

hanum / tha han heman for / an han komber eig apter till hemkynna.”

(“The one turning his heel and head towards the neighbours is out of

the fatherland, that one has no more the right to return to it: the

relatives in civil line (agnatia) or based on consanguinity (so, natural

relatives called also cognatio, unlike agnatio, T.’s N.), who at the time

of his emigration were around, they will inherit”). Why making it

longer anymore? If there is any manuscript codex in which those read

confusedly, I don’t think it would have happened the same in all the

cases: so it should be examined everyone apart with our own eyes.

What reason has finally imposed such thing?

Would have it been written otherwise in the printing house? I

wonder? Yet many other codices are published in almost every human

fields and disciplines of activity, they have no mistakes, don’t they? Yet

in the day the manuscripts of the best written works are brought, are

they not corrected by others? It imposes then the authority of a popular

(vulgate) lecture. That cannot be however detrimental to the other

situations, once in such case / legal case everything is separated by

paragraphs, too: be you an ever so good orator, you could be too a very

strong lawgiver in the legal cases you encounter and in which, as a

rule, it was common to make a fast decision, you can still be wrong.

Except the foregoing, there are situations – about 60 more recent laws

and codices are mixed with others older /bound in the same vulgate

collection; in their case, things are either clearly said or can be easily

distinguished from one another. You would rush to say that it is less

likely the other laws should be related to a context regarding a receipt

by the Goths – who have been the first in Sarmatia, – even for centuries

– then they migrated to Thrace and Greece – of an inheritance they

expected from their fatherland. Yet the spirit of the law is differently

prefigured as imagined by them, since it has been long time reflected,

in order to defend as better as possible the truth of the facts. It is due

here mentioning the last law collection of the Western Goths, all the

laws located and all the constitutions of all times, without

discrimination, which have gathered under their own authority, such

law assembly needing no solemn recognition or confirmation on part

of any kings. “And this because, together with me, there are all those

that have had a look into old papers (incunabula) witnessing and

backing it; and, if we keep silence, the law codex witnesses it in

excess. So, the law, does and still exists today only since the huge

migration towards us, although, for centuries in a file afterwards, it

could not be consulted. Still the same uncountable laws are today, old

and impaired and nobody knows anything about them. To them add

huge funerary columns and stone monuments, the inscriptions of which

are self eloquent; such stones have been erected for the memory eternal

of some outstanding heroes, fallen in Greece and Thrace or in other

places, who used the victorious weapons of the Goths, remained as

swift signs of their virtue.. On old stones and incunabula is written

Girkia, Grikia and Girklandi, meaning the word Greece, corrupted.

There was often found Grikum, Grikium and Girkium (it follows a text

written with Runes, which in translation means: “dedicated to a

peregrine who died in Greece”, T.’s N.)

And in a close future, as we can realise very well. we would have

available the entire volume of stone carved inscriptions, written with

Runes of that type, through the outstanding endeavour of the erudite

Hadorsius Johannes, a volume, the apparition of which already has

begun, under the most favourable auspices.

§6. These laws collections have been drawn by the lawyers called

provincial by us and which are called today Lagmann. On the same

occasion, beware trusting those who, I don’t know from what

appearance of error, are not shy asserting that those found would have

been all that remained in Sveonia from the power of province judges,

who must have been as many as the number of praetors the Romans

had. (the praetor was a Roman magistrate, chosen among the privileged

noble men – the patricians – who, during the period of the Republic,

was the second dignitary of the State, his assignment being to

administer justice; thereafter, his role would be especially a legislative

one, issuing edicts with an indication of their coming into force, the

end and rules it guides after. The collection of these edicts build up the

praetorian or onorar law, as opposed to the regularly voted laws;

concurrently with the increase in the number of the foreigners, besides

the urban praetor it has been set up a peregrine one; as the German

States, in their legislation and jurisdiction they guided themselves after

the Roman law, hence the circumstances coincidences; no less it is true

that, in its turn, the Roman State inspired at first, partially from

Samolse’s laws through the Vlacho-Pelasgo-Etrusco-Geto-Dacians, the

ancestors inclusively of the northern peoples, especially Germanic

ones, with whom our people were closed related and who, long before

to be built Rome (753 BC), lived inclusively in the territory of our

days Italy in every corner of the world, T.’s N.), Edicts that just have

been proposed on a table attached thereto by the appointed magistrate,

which, throughout his praetorian office, had to exist as laws and

subsequently be imposed – whose power meant the Imperial power

(MAJESTAS Imperii), ascribed in fact to the praetor (l. XI) in fin. D. de

Just. et Jure). Cicero himself (lib. V, Act. In Verr. Orat. VIII, in fin).

speaks about the Edicts and the power of the praetors “Even in these

new edicts the power of the Praetors and those regarding Apronius’

reign, too, the stealings perpetrated by the slaves in Venus’ temples,

upon other robberies, should be brought to the end. Why not, instead of

purchasing the food, would it be not given for nothing? Why not, the

pantry should be filled, at somebody’s liking, also for nothing,

moreover, they should give you a great deal of money in addition?

Why not, every kind of damages and convictions as a result of serious

insults and abuses, should not be acquitted? So, those judges who, in

no way, have tolerated all these, did they or did they not fulfil their

duty?” Here should be noted the phrases damna pati, “to suffer

convictions” and damna perferre (“to execute up to the end the

convictions”). Even about the power of the praetors see again in

Cicero’s (lib. VII, Orat. X. Verr., p.m. 243) where it is talked at length

about the praetorian fascia, the adornments of which spoke about their

power and dignity within the Empire; they alone dealt with the legal

cases on the rolls, they made suggestions in ambiguous litigation

circumstances, etc. In witness thereof we have not only the old law

texts (Confirmed. Leg. Upsal. An. 1296, confirm. II Suderm. A.

1327), yet also the ancient kings’ histories, as it is too Konung Olof

Haraldz sagu (p. 89); Sidhan satti thet up under Laghman fin.

(chap.XXV to the end; Tingbr EE.), from which it clearly results such

laws must have been composed by the Western Goths, and the kings

did nothing else than confirm, promulgate them, upon people having

been consulted (possibly through a referendum, T.’s N.)

§7. So, the power of kings always was great and remained as such

and be it ever so big, over the sacred things it should be even

architectonic, how the Greek use to say, in Aristotle, for instance (Polit.,

lib. VII, chap.8) a…te.t….., that is very well organised and

hierarchized since the offence towards the gods – pe.. t. Te…

ep.µe.e.a – always equalled the one towards the kings and remained as

such; it happened therefore the kingdom laws, although reinforced by a

long time use, sometimes they would be violated and infringed. See also

Olf. Saug. (chap.XCII): “Allr Svear wilia hasa forn laug / och fullan

ratt sinn” (“All the Sveons want to fully make use of their old laws”).

According to those, you always should be oriented towards serving a

certain purpose. We can infer such thing from every old law and

incunabula, an effect to which they correspond in everything. See also

the fragments c. seeq. VI of Kongr. M. Ericsons (and book IV q. VI

cod.-tit.; K. Christof. Betl. A. MDCLII); since, for a solid reason,

insignificantly at all, they do not correspond. And, like in the case of

food being swallowed (from the stomach the bolus, on which we feed,

is passed into the intestines, from there it is passed into the median

/mesenteric/ intestine to the veins, since through the shared receptacle

located nearby the kidneys, called ductum thoracicum, from there being

passed into a vein called by physicians subclavicular; so mixing up in

the cave vein, from where, accumulated, would be passed into the right

orifice /auricle of the heart; from the heart through uncounted arteries,

it would spread into the whole body. in every corner of it), same are

things with the citizens, too; out of the taxes paid year by year, which

are collected by quaestors and state finance officers, a portion would

go to the treasury (state budget), for ports maintenance expenses, for

settlement of invoices covering goods and other merchandise of public

interest; and from there payments would be made in different ways and

manners. And certain particulars, yet also the state bodies which, by

their services maintained the vigour and vital spirit of the nation,

contributing to keeping the public health and unity of the Empire

components. There were indeed cases of riots appeared from assuming

and claiming of rights undue on part of certain corrupt people and as a

result of abuses: sometimes they would go to such an extent as putting

the fatherland at risk. From David who, no doubt by right, was called

The Holy, everything else was holy, including the oracles, as we have

it confessed in very clear words. “The one rising his hand against the

King cannot be innocent”. “Hoo will komma sina hand wijdh

HERRANS Smorda och blifwa oskyldigh?” And next to it: “Säläte

Herren thet wara längt iftä migh att iag skall komna mina hand wijd

HERRANS SMORDA”, and in Plutarch (A., CX, XCIII, “t.a…

µ..a…. .’ … .pe…… ..ate.”, “the King, making use of his

right, is beyond reproach”, “legally, nobody could hold him

responsible”). Look what Anaxarcus says after Plutarch: “.a. t.

p.a.t.. .p. t..…t.. .eµ.t..”, “Everything that’s done by the Emperor is right.” And

senator Terentius according to Tacitus, Annal. (lib. VI. chap.VIII):

“You, Princes, gods have invested with a supreme judgement of the

things, and us it was reserved the glory of submittal”. So it is explained

why between the drinking and banqueting, Alexander, unjustly, ordered

to be killed Clytus. The Macedonians decided to slaughter him, like a

mean he was even he was deprived of a grave, since the King gave

order not to be buried. So, an idea was established, even among the

unbelievers, that, on the earth, the King is the one to administer

Jupiter’s right, since the King is invested with that right, he is the

image of Jupiter: therefore, everything the King decided had the effect

of a law that nobody could challenge. See also Curtius (lib. VII, chap.2

and Pomp., in the notes to h. l.), There were indeed often voices to

plead the adulation, in order to, if need be, the laws would be

promulgated according to everybody’s wish, even a pact was

concluded, of the human society, so that to it not the King would

appear ill-willing, but instead his unlimited power (Fullmyndig

Konung) governed by law.

Yet the ruling condition was to rely on nothing else than being

assigned to a single man. And for that reason it should be distinguished

between what wished to mean the Majesty (the supreme power) going

with the person to which it was committed and calling personal and

that decided at the level of the city or the people shall be called real

(see also Grotius, De Jure B. and P. lib. I, chap.12 and 7). There are

also indeed other opinions according to which the subject of Majesty is

jointly acting – both common and proper – and which is set up based

on a thin flute sound, being translated through a power to reign, rapidly

given by God (in the common idiom forthwith), when there is a

possibility for the people to chose one or more than one, who is/are to

reign in the place of God (see also Casp. Ziegl. at d. q. VII by

Grotius). Him the King will not submit, since he has not to give

account to the citizens; but such a submittal would be sought by

everyone carrying with them the patience of last unjust deeds. About to

the same effect Curtius too expressed himself (lib. X. chap.III): “The

peoples under kings honour their names like the gods’ ones.” By right,

Grotius gives us an advice (on l.b. and P., lib. I, chap.IV, n. VIII and

the following) such law should not be infringed and, in fact, it is not.

And neither our Kings’ power is infringed and nothing is more

important than the situation is examined by a called conusel of the

friends, since the counsellors and administrators (I guess they were

some kind of ushers, T.’s N.) they were not leaders. The ministers,

however good they might have been, they were not leaders, but called

to explain very ample and adorned councils decrees. Just for that

reason Cicero, in Pro domo sua (p.m. 222 and the following) uses the

formula: “by such consiliarius, by such officer, which in Phaedrus

(Fab., II, 7) and in Plinius (IV, 17) occurs under the form as a

counsellor from consiliando; with the French, conseiller; and, in my

view, such words should have been rejected as false, barbarian and

replaced with expressions a consiliis (by the commissioners), a pedibus

(courier slaves), ab epistolis (through letters) in the second case should

be added formulas through which the ancestors, according to their

traditional custom, expressed their necessity as for a slave or an

affranchised Roman slave undergo a punishment. Other fragments of

other writers (Plautus Epid., I, II, IV; Mil. Glor. IV, II, XXII) to be

found again in this book, refer to the same subject.”

§8. I have already shown that with the Sveons and Goths, as

deriving from an ancient natural custom, but also through their

customs, it was intended the laws be established upon a ritual and kept

piously < therefore we read that in order to have been deeply kept in

everybody’s mind, in ancient times on a day and at a place previously

fixed, the laws were recited and corrected every year (“All Laugh à

enum dagh”). Such thing is to be found in ancient law fragments,

mentioned as such. That custom, established as such, of explaining and

having corrected the laws, was carried out not only in villages and

provinces, but also in towns, and even the cities. The legislator’s intent

was to have the civil laws transcribed and punctually corrected with

great care (um median summar), to be absolutely the same all over the

empire (Konungzbr. S., chap.XXIII) thus no misunderstanding might

creep into and they are uniformly learned, accord. to Quintilian (Dial.

De orat., chap.XXXII); the same specification – uniforme – is made by

Macrobius too, and later by brilliant Cellarius (Class. Immerito

damnat. Antib.)

§9. I said a median summar. No doubt the word an, i.e. ar, has

originally the first and at the same time the simplest letter, the vowel a,

which encloses in itself habeo’s concept of “being born” (“I have”),

hence atta, tetta, Atta, the Gothic fater, “father” (Eust., ILIAD. ;

ILIAD 9, Ulph. Mat. VI. V, 9), a concept which the Greeks, in analyzing

the origin of the words, simply ignore. With the Hebrew it occurs as IN

that should be related to teneo, too (“I possess”) and contineo (“I keep,

maintain”); therefore, ar = an, since the Sun revolves around the Earth,

passing through twelve Zodiac signs, which the Greeks called ..d.a…

and which divide the Earth, from each such sign it turning and setting

out further. Hence the year was called revolving (annus vertens), “which

revolves”, as might be found also in Cicero, C. Nepos, Suetonius,

Macrobius and also others: at arit wendis, as occurs in certain law

fragments – and jamnlanga. Also, . …. pe…d.., “the circuit, the

revolution of the Sun”. Although I do not know how big is the difference

between a solar year and a sidereal one, about which speak with due

competence the mathematicians, The Sun, by its inclination, its

immobility and return, makes the years and seasons turn – the spring,

summer, autumn and winter-, according to natural rules, as Seneca

remarks (Nat. Q., lib. II, chap.XI), it rotates even from one month to the

other, claims Plautus (Pers., IV, IV, 70), and from Cicero (Ex Timaeo

Plat., lib. De Universit., p.m. 201), we learn that the stars rove through

the sky by conversion, from the Solstitial to Foggial and conversely;

Lucretius (De R. N., lib. V). “And thereafter, by a neat order of the

celestial arch, the flow may be seen, seasons and years are flowing”.

And to the end of the same book: “To the lofty temple of the World, to

the cradle of which Moon and Sun are on the watch, shedding the light

around in abundance, teaching people that the years come back and

time goes by.” And Lucretius again: “Once the summer is gone, The

Capricorn appears and with it, the hoar lays, too; and when it turns to

the Cancer, the solstice comes and the Moon sees as dying inside moon

spaces, and year spaces consumed by Itself, Holy Sun, while rolling

greedily for ever.” And Tibull. (lib. IV, Paneg. Ad. Messal.):

“How good we feel when the year turns to summertime.

The spring begins with the vernal equinox,

The summer, with the summer solstice, the autumn with the

autumnal equinox,

And the winter, with the winter solstice,”

Therefore they speak about the new summer, in the first part of the

summer or its beginning; another is the medium or mellow and, finally, a

third stage is that extreme or the aging one; about all these it may be

seen in Lucretius (lib. V, De R. N.) and about that medium or adult

(mature). With us it is said median summar, with exactly the same

meaning; it is the one to turn the year. From Cicero (De Nat. deor., lib.

II, p.m. 35 and the following) we learn that from the African peoples, the

Sun is the one defining the year, that is the summer time, then they deem

they pass from a year into another. This is why, with them, the year is

longer than with us, since there is always the same position of the sky

and stars: therefore, when we call their year the 12th, for example, it

would be completed with 854; anni (“years”) with the Romans they also

are called aestivi (“of the summer”) or aestivo die (“in a summer day”),

because in the summer holidays (feriis aestivi) the forum wasclosed for legal proceedings, did not take place any trials.

§10. From those noted until now, I deem as enough clear why the

Romans the year is defined through the summer (see also Gell., Noct.

Att., lib. II, chap.XXI and XIX, chap.V). The fact that the ancient ones

disregarded that period of the year is of good omen. The Greeks, like

the Romans, use to refer to laws depending on the summer; both in

Cicero (lib. II, De legibus. to the end), and in Plato, it is verified that

every speech about the laws, took place in a summer day, yet about the

summer holidays on which the court were closed other documents shall


§11. Indeed, as early as Odin’s time, the assessors should have

been twelve, this also because for you, dear reader, those times are too

remote, we shall bring them before your eyes, just turn your look and

spirit towards them. Once arrived at the city of Sveonia, Odin, to make

his arrival of good omen, did something that would remain related to

his name, Sigi Sigtunam, that is he instituted a number of twelve

prefects to serve according to the coutume; something like that it was

in ancient Troy. From the foreword to the Eddic writings we may learn

how the trials were carried out with the ancient ones: “Skipathr ar

Haufpingiar i tha liking sem i Troio voru setir XII haufthingiar at

dömma Landzlag Haufthingiar”, meaning the city princeps, that is

Haubith or haufut, a word to which it corresponds in Latin caput and

in Greek .efa..; with the Goths they are called haubith, haubitis

meaning caput and capitis (“head”, “of the head”) in Latin; see how

little differs h from c. Among the others, that is Scaliger (De causis

ling. lat., lib. I, chap.XXV), who proves h being nothing but an

aspirated c, a situation frequently met today in Swedish. That

phenomenon we can meet also with the ancient Sueons and Goths, as

well as with the Trojans, who in fact are nothing else than the ancestors

of the Goths/ Getae, as it results from the sacred written laws, which

we shared. In their customs, I say it judging by the form in which the

trials were carried out, they made use, like we do, of an extremely

religiosity council. We have available fragments of very old laws, as

well as the histories and annals confirming it with the power of the

law. “Nu war that swa / at Othin aff theim tolff war domarin: sidhan

staddis swa / at Kunungr en firi sik sàtir a Thingi. Ater gafs that swa

sem syrst war / at Kunungr a tueim mannom duom i händer sàttia: the

domarar aghu thing sokia ä ràttom thingrdagh” (“And so in that

twelve men college is also Odin, himself a judge, then another has

appeared, who represented the King at the trial. Again, like in the first

ages, it was established that two will be the parts, a trial should be

made up of

(I think it refers inclusively to the prosecution and defence

attorneys, T.’s N.), to plead at the trial on the fixed day, according to

the rule”). Therefore, they needed twelve judges to assist the parties.

This is why, even in our days, the suffrages put together of the

assessors are called Domare. However, sometimes the number of

notabilities was of ten only, as I shall prove somewhere else. Just for

that reason there were Tuai or duau, i.e.Duo, i.e. there were two, the

assignment of which was entirely worth of trust and respect.

About those twelve assessors it is told also in the legend of

Hervarat (Hervarat saug., chap.XIV): “han hielt tha med sier tolff

spekinga / tha er sitia skildu yfr ollum bandamalum” (“Twelve they

were at that time (in King Heidricus’ time), among the most wise men,

called to investigate the most serious issues”). Twelve it says spekinga,

meaning the men most imposing in scientific fields and the knowledge

of facts, since to the forum did not come people from the fields, not

from the handles of the plough, not from the countryside trade were

they coming, to unusual trials, as prosecuted, no. That is why Spekinga

comes from spaian, speia, spana, from which the Latin specio,

meaning speculari, esse in speculis, i.e. “to examine very carefully, to

feel, to sniff like a setter, very deeply”, a notion which Cicero (lib. I,

De Divin., p.m. 94) defines through sagire, which equals praesagire,

i.e. “to feel the future beforehand”; hence the Swedish spa, “wise”, as

well as spaikingur, spekingur, “philosopher.” Why? But not from the

same root, besides many others, is also spelunca, Gr. sp..a… and

sp….., lat. specus (“cavern”, “cave”, “depth”, the sense in the text,

T.’s N.); but even species does not mean the image of the thing, since

many times appear before us forms that are not real, but we are offered

an image (it is about abstract philosophical, notions, T.’s N.) In the

version annotated by Cl. Verelius to Cicero (De Divin., p. 97), these

are appointed as judges. And so we can read in Olof’s legend (Olofs

Saug., chap.XC): “Olafr Kunungr hasdi jafnan med ser XII enu

vistrustu menn; their satu yfr domutn med honom / oc rádu um

bandamal” (“King Olaus had always twelve very wise assessors, which

he consulted in cases with very difficult issues”). These Radu in the

text, occurring also in many other passages, mean “men”, by which

one could win up to the end, since that is understood by Radu (whether

that could be also the etymology of a man’s name with us? – T.’s N.),

attended always the King’s council, they were also called Radmenn or

more accurate Kunungs Radmenn, “King’s wise advisors.” The

formerly judges’ assessors have been called Rademenn, as they are

called in our days, too, in the towns, al over the Kingdom of Sueonia.

From the last fragments of the ancient memory of the laws,

we can infer the following: “Kunungr a nembd med ser sátia

tolfmänn” (“The King’s assessors (since they attended even the sacred

councils called Konungs Radmenn) were in number of twelve”).

“Konungr skal nembd firi sik sätia / oc lagmadr á Thingi” (“Twelve

royal assessors and as much judges should be present in the province,

in the absence of the King’s deputy judge.

The same number had to attend as part of the cases carried out

in the regions, yet not in a minor territory (popularly called Herad or

Hundari, it meaning in our days a territory counting one hundred

villages). See similar fragments of the other codices and particularly

that of the King Ericus The Great, which, as we can see, corresponds

with the legislation in force in the territory of our country. Except that

the assessors were not also appointed as judges (see also Tingbr.

Upsl., chap.XXVII, chap.XXXV; Konungsbr., chap.X. chap.XXXIV,

chap.XLI). When the assessors held also the office as judges, it was

preceded by a special formula, as we find it recounted in Cicero (Pro

Mil.), in Seneca (De mort Claud.), again in Cicero (In Verr., VII, lib.

IV, p. 121), for instance: “If someone would request from me a

notability, I would name you, because you know me best” (Seneca);

“Refuse the friends, even the case is new, even you don’t know the

plaintiff, he defaulting, this court of law has been set up, out of respect

for him”, where just Cicero’s defender is appointed, familiar to him,

who knew his case and united with the attorney. “Me, said he, as one

that knew the legal matters, they wished to appoint as a defender of the

whole case” (see also Cicero in Verr. Divin., p.m. 56). Yet not with the

quaestors. These Cicero has united with the judges: “As far as I am

concerned, he says, have I to judge with wisdom? Why not a quaestor,

too?” Here it may be noted very well that the judge should be

ingenious, very wise and right. In our legislation nämd and

nämdemänn from nämna meaning “to appoint.” Therefore, as I said,

the assessors had the duty to investigate and not to judge: In the first

judgements it is condemned or acquitted, yet not through those

verdicts, which, under the laws, should be entered again on the roll.

“Fálla eller fakia / oc ey domma.” Since the judges’ duty also was to

weigh the capacity of the prefects, to perfectly know the matter tried

and, based on the laws of the sacrament, to duly strike a case off the

roll (to try it again) to appraise, finally correctly a trial, through major

arguments sufficiently convincing, since it is very simple, with

insufficient evidence, to convict or acquit; and the laws cannot be

correctly applied, if the jurisdiction is not properly mastered. Such

reason of judgement was well known and pointed out accordingly in

the Attic forum, as Xenophon recounts

(Sympos., p.m. 520): “.a. . …st.ß….. … et. ef.

e.. p… se a.t..e.e.. a..a d.afe…t.., ef. ta. ..f…, ..a

.. ta..sta e.d. . t. µe … pa.e.. .”

(“and Cristoboulos says: there are not enough reasons so I

oppose; and in the first instance it does not clearly result, so i can

forthwith realize, whether it is due convicting or acquitting”). A first

judgement has indeed it importance with Aeschines (Orat. in

Ctesiphont.) Also with Cicero (lib. I, De orat., p.m. 164, Sturm

Publishing House.) who explains the same thing in a few words:

Socrates was condemned not only as a result of first instances (verdicts)

by which the judges set just one thing, to condemn or absolve him, but

just under those laws to be again interpreted, polished, reconsidered,

..f.., as it is said in the passage quoted from Xenophon, because that

word comes from the verb ..f…, “I judge, I count, I reckon”, since

the votes of all are collected and counted before a verdict of conviction

or acquittal is rendered. One is expressed with the Greeks through

ap…f.s.. (acquittal through a voting) and the other is .ata..f.s..

(conviction order). What happens therefore if .µ…f.. (those having

a voting right equal to that of the others) do not attend all of them?

Then it was invoked the concept of “all” (universal) because the most of

them were present. There is what we can derive from Dionysius Of

Halicarnassus (lib. VII): From those 21 tribunes, 11 had acquitted

Coriolan (a famous Roman general in the 5th century BC, who,

although brilliantly served his fatherland, by bringing down the hate of

the mob upon him, he refused to appoint him as a consul. Accused then

by the people’s tribunes, he was condemned to exile. Fled to the

Volsces, the enemies of the Romans, who Coriolan once defeated, he set

up before the gates of Rome. The Senate and people, frightened, have

sent him in vain a couple of missions to persuade him, he was about to

assault Rome, when, finally, he yielded to his mother, Veturia’s and his

wife, Volumnia’s entreats , T.’s N.), but should have been another two

votes, the acquittal verdict would apply “d.a t.. .s…f.a. ” (“due to

equality of the votes”). Since the votes have not been equal, yet one

more for acquittal. There it is what Cujacius says, commenting on

Aristotle (lib. XII, obs., chap.XVI, Arist. chap.VI. Polit., chap.II,

Perionius’ version): …… t.

t… p.e..s. d..a. (“Justice is served when right is what is seen by

many”) or how Perionius says it: “when a right is analysed by the

most, finally it can be said it is right”. The same thing too counts in the

case of those belonging to the whole kingdom, i.e. jus patrium (the

civil law): “Hwem theße tolf eller siu af them f?lla / vari fáltr” (“When

out of twelve seven condemn, be he condemned”).

What happens when the condemning votes equal the acquitting

ones? In such a case, Grotius (De I. B and P., lib. II, chap.V and

XVIII) is of the opinion that a fair trial should incline towards an

acquittal, a verdict called in this case humanior (“more

humanistically”). That is too the case of Euripide’s Orestia: “.ta.

.sa. .e…ta. ..f.. ap…eta. . .at……µe… ” (“given the

equal voting, the accused is acquitted”); a judgement totally complying

with the ancient system of the Swedish jurisdiction: “Nu án ster willia

beria / oc ster fálla / tha agu their witzord sum wária willia” (“Six

votes for a condemnation, six again for an acquittal, the release idea

prevails”). That thing has been inserted thereafter in east Gothic laws,

and even in every trial and in the whole Kingdom of Sveonia. In the

criminal cases, things are a little more intricate, especially when we are

before a fool. See also what says Cicero (I, XXXVIII, to the end, in De

re jud., accord. to Orat. VII and the last of In Verrem, p. 124). In the

civil cases, however, things are as already shown, but it is better to see

what does reveal Zieglerus (Ad. loc. Grotii cit., chap.VII, Konungs dr.

S. Rätteg., art. XXXIII), whose ideas, in fact, do not differ too much

from those of our ancestors.

§12. As for the concept of jus jurandum, we offer Valerius

Maximus’ opinion (lib. II, last chap.) from whom we learn that they

appealed alike to the Divinity and the oath of the one, who, while

climbing up to the shrine, appeared to the judges not to believe

sufficiently in the gods, was disregarded, therefore the sincerity of his

word was doubted. So, Aristotle (Polit., II, 6) even request from the

judge to condemn such an accused or witness. hence the phrases

sacramento rogare aliquem (“to entreat someone through a holy

oath”), sacramento dicere sententiam (“to express an opinion under a

holy oath”), sacramentum used frequently, Instead of jus jurandi /

jurandum, Plaut shall use juramentum, which he deems more correct

than sacramentum, which he deems as perfidum, by using the verb

perjurare (“to perjure”) (Cistell. II, 1, 19 and 26). Like Plaut and

Cicero (Pro Rab. Posth.), who would use the verb pejerare, with that

meaning. See also Horatio, Carm. Od. XVII. accord. to Hesychius

(p.m. 916), “t.e.. Te.. pa.a S….. e. t.. …S.. ….

teta. ” (“In Solon’s laws engraved on wooden boards (t. a… = “a

wooden board on which the laws were engraved”) it is written that they

swore on three gods Jupiter, Neptune and Ceres”), and certain courts

on “.p….. pat…. .a. ..µ.t.. .a. d.. .as..e..”

(“on Apollo the father, on Ceres and King Jupiter”). The fact that with

the Greeks there was sworn, according to a sacred ritual, on Apollo the

father, he was .ata ta pat..a, i.e. “under a traditional custom”

(therefore the coutume, T’s N.) That cult of Apollo as pat….,

“patriarchal”, has been alike called hyperborean or barbarian. And

what wants to mean in fact .ata ta pat..a, if not .ata t..a, hence

t..a (three) with the Hyperboreans it being the most important

number, accepted in the rituals “t….a pa.ta dedasa.” (Arist., De

Coel., lib. I, chap.1), “Everything is dived into three”, “.a. pa.ta ta

a….p..a t..a. s..e.e.”, “the number three is which meets

everything is human”. “.a.ape.. .a. fas. .a. .. p..a…e.. t.

pa., .a. ta pa.ta” “Thus even the Pythagoreans deem it very

valuable, since with them everything is determined by THREE”). From

there the number three penetrated into the sacred things, too and into

the laws. See also Jamblichus, (Prot. C. see in Vita Pythagorae),

chap.28. That opinion is confirmed also by Plato (Epinom., p.m. 924)

asserting that the Greeks have received these gods from the Scythians,

that is from the barbarians, together with many other precepts,

cultivated with much religiosity through the oracles of Delphi. About

jure jurando there are thus recounts in uncounted passages of our laws,

both old and more recent, where we come across the following

formulas: Med sed thera, Med Sed, Sed Tolfmanna, sed siu Manna and

other like Snorr. in Sivar. Thor. and Vita Hacqui. Olafs Saug,

chap.CXVII, Scheff. Ups. Ant., chap.X. p. 141 and the following also

in Sag. et legibus veteribus passim). Both in the everyday life, and in

the religious superstitions, in our fatherland has preserved the custom

of swearing on Neptune or Attin, Jove or Thor, Ceres or Freya, as we

learn from both certain laws fragments, and the legends and historical

documents. The oldest formula read about this way: Hialpi mier sua

Freia Thor oc hin almatki As, “so help me Freya (Ceres), Thor

(Jupiter) and Great Attin (by who it is understood inclusively the Sun

or Apollo).” Afterwards the name and image of the Asian Odin. And

yet they are lawful, about which also Cornelius Nepos recounts: “From

there it came to a trial, should the oath be broken, due to certain

elements, on absolutely lawful grounds you were condemned,

summoned before a court of law by eleven men, who, according to the

Athenians’ custom would condemn you to public torment.” A number

of eleven men should be, under the very old Civil Code in force, to

apply the public torment of those condemned, as well as the prefect of

those which in the old Bircensian laws called stupagrewe.

And, grewe or gerewe, from the verb particle Ge (usually a prefix) and

rewa meaning “to investigate carefully”, “to seek in order to find

something”, “to follow up to the end”, hence grewe meaning “judge”,

“praetor”, “quaestor”, because, under the judicial rule, should research

very carefully. Then a custom has been instituted, after the one of our

ancestors, and including the peoples neighbouring Sweden, like those

who, by their birth, manhood, fame and deeds prove themselves

prominent, rising above those belonging to the equestrian order, yet as

a result of their dignity exceptionally in everything, they would be

given properties by inaugurating a new ritual (should they have

insufficient assets to join the equestrian order, T’s N.), received by the

King (as sword handlers) in his personal guard as a sign of eternal

gratefulness. And, relating to such quality they have even been called

Kunungr swerdtakare (swords handlers/royal shield carriers), like in

the Hirdskra Iarlar accord. to Rubr. Um Hertu ga eid Aegid. Girs in

Vit. R. Er. XIV). That Gothic word could be translated within other

peoples through some fight situation having arisen, in which they dash

with all their soul ardour, even often risking to be crushed, when, in

words of I do not know what other languages, an idea was suggested,

they should not doubt that Minerva would interfere unexpectedly and

everything would be sorted out (the hint is at frequent similar situations

of the Trojan War, T’s N.) As we could ascertain, in many matters

between very wise men, when they were overstrided, not by others, yet

rather by themselves. From Rewa even Rafft / Kunungr/

Räfft/Reffingarthing/ Räfft eller Landzthing derives, “the counts

assigned with judging those sinning against the public health”, as

Verelius explains. See also Joan. Oetting (De jure limit., lib. I,

chap.V), Olofs Sag., chap.XCI, chap.XXXV; Kongbr., chap.IX and X,

Verelius in Lex. Scand.)

§13. There is yet another very old law, De gestatione igniti ferri

(On the power of the incandescent iron) aiming at proving the

innocence in dubious cases, brought into this Kingdom at the same

time with the Christian religion; to be sure that nothing false has crept

into, on the example of Poppon, who was the first to bring it to Dania

based on Christ’s teachings, in the time of King Erik of Sveonia and

Dania. The law has been conceived and kept based on the following

words: “Allir dulsmal standi undir Jarne or Gutz Domi.: wardir ikier

at Järni / se saktauser / brennt at tárni / heti med rettri feltr” (“In

every dubious cases the burning iron method would have been applied

to prove the innocence and thus submit them to the trial of God;

through iron the guilty ones were cleansed, through iron the convicted

ones were duly punished.”). Then again: “Nu wanis thòn sak til thera

tha war thet swo fàrst i Laghum / at thòn skuidu wàrta sit med Jarne

ok Gudz Donti” (See Stiernhook de Jure ver. Sveon. Gothorumque,

lib. I, chap.8 and Fragm. leg. Antiquiss. Loccen. Antiq. Sveogoth.,

lib. XI) chap.4 and chap.XVIII Gudzard). People that once were

accused of concealed murders, it was a set rule, since the earliest and

oldest laws – through iron just the justice of God comes.

So, in such a way the offences belonging to the heart of the

matter could not be skipped over. And besides, these trials were not set

up as much to punish the wrongdoers than especially to investigate in

detail the causes that lead to blameworthy deeds being perpetrated.

And when the matter of the case related to something very shameful, it

was required all the more an extreme maturity on part of the judges,

and if the religious aspect was also involved, then the case was

radiated from the rolls. So, in such a way there could not be omitted

deeds, letting them be purified. That kind of trial was also a kind of

challenging those unfaithful, being about the certifying of the heavenly

doctrine as the most sure, yet not the only one, but in any case, the

only truly sacred. On that occasion it was also on trial the degree of

faith in God, since some appealed either to the name of God, asking for

help, or the sacred things keeping with the gods, others were coursing

the edge of the iron squeezing their feet. Indeed, moreover, we learn

also from old incunabula, an example from which Count Ioannes

Heisig conveyed to us, mentioning Tiburtius, son of a nobody

Cromatius, in which it is clearly to be seen that his opinion was forced.

It is entirely worthy giving credit to the following text excerpt from

very old law fragments (Loccen. Antiq. Sveogoth., lib. XI) chap.4 and

17): gripin / oc gaffz honom watd at offra Gduhom alla träda barsotter

a brännar, de glodtrum Tiburtius giorde kors for sinom Fotom / de trod

oràddir barfottr wta glödenar / oc sang Gudz loff / oc sagde: mik

thykkir sem iak ginge fram at rosa blomstre i mins HERR a Jesu

Christi Nampn («Tiburtius understood then he was left but one chance

– to present these “gods” some fictions or else let his legs be bound

with a burned iron and walk that way. Yet Tiburtius, laying under the

sign of the cross, bare foot, stretched with the edges of a chain glowing

with fire, began to sing in louder voice, bringing praises to God, even

adding: “It seems to me like feeling roses caressing, like a tender

endearment, my feet, in the name of Jesus Christ, my God.”»

Yet, as I already said before, with the profane people that sacred

way of trial was effective, called the Judgement of God (Gottesurteil or

Gottesgericht in German, T’s N.) with a popular term, in the Roman

Pontifical Law, yet never accepted by the Church of Christ. (D.D. ad

cit., chap.D. chap.XVII q. I, Edzorbr. Ol.) For a while having become

an important chapter of the jurisdiction, in the end it is proved to be

wholly unproven and challenging, as long as the Great and Mighty

God is depicted as putting at trial those unfaithful in a cruel manner.

That is why, in our fatherland it was eventually repealed, while in other

kingdoms in the Christened regions still being in force (II q. V.,

chap.XX) last chap.ext. De purgat. Vulgari). King Jarl Birgerus was

the one who repealed that Judgement of God. His example was

followed by his son, Magnus, even by his grandson; every King of

Sveonia and of the Goths condemned such proceedings. Still

preserving here and there by native mistakes, under the reign of Erik

The Great it has been completely abolished all over Sveonia:

Arfdabalkar / Helsingicarum legum. “Forty at Arkibiscup Olaswer

kiördi at Jarnbird war ater uptakin i Helsingta Landi / sidhan hon war

aslagòn i kunung Magnusa oc kunung Birghirs daghum: tha staddis

thätte i Stockholmi af alt kunung Magnusa Radh/ sum kunung àr badhe

Sweriki ok Norghi / at Jarnbyrd skulde aldri optare wara. Ok toks

therfore samu rätter sum fòrrä war tolf manna nämpd / um thòn mal

Jarnbyrdä mal waru: ok skal bötàs fore hwart mal sum kämpd sállir /

swa sum thet at han ath tarni fallin wrdi” (“Since under Olaus,

Archbishop of Uppsala, a decrease in the use of the “divine trial”

through the burned iron procedure has been obtained, only under the

protection and authority of Birgerus The Great has been abolished in

the whole territory of the Kingdom. In Stockholm even took place a

council of the Senate, by which Birgerus has been acknowledged as the

Great King of Sveonia and Norway, since He was who, by a more rigid

act, repealed the said divine law”). In its place it has been implemented

a jus jurandum of those twelve men, as it was before. And, as before

again, with much precaution, they enforce penalties with the same

sense of equity, as they have before that act coming in force, now, after

the repealing of the “burned iron trial” (chap.II, q. I).

§14. And like in many other cases having been considered, with

the Greeks too it occurs a trial equal to that cruel one, in the case of

sacred institutions: thus it just cannot be weighed whether they are

really sacred things, the ritual yet seems to be similar in uncertain

cases, so that, looking closer into the case, a neat conclusion cannot be

drawn whether or not they dealt with a sacred case.

A clear example of such gives us Sophocles in his tragedy

Antigone. Polinice (one of the two brothers – the other is Eteocle –

who killed one another in the fight for the throne, the letter fighting on

part of Thebes, his homeland, Polinice – against it, both sons of

Oedipus and Jocasta, T’s N.), according to an order given by Creon,

their uncle and a temporary tyrant of Thebes, remained unburied;

Creon has given even an edict by which anyone daring to bury him

would be condemned to death. Antigone, their sister, committed his

body to the ground in great secret. Guards have been set up to watch

over Polinice’s dead body; in a moment of listlessly on their part, the

breach of the order was committed; one of the guards had to bring the

terrible news to Creon; lots were cast as for who would go, and that

one – because he did not know the perpetrator -, notifies the tyrant this


«That man isn’t guilty!

Since everybody said: “I don’t know, didn’t see anything!”

An iron

Burned by us in the embers we would hold in our hands, through

the fire

We would walk, we would swear on the gods that we neither

Perpetrators have been nor have we anything to do

With such perpetrator….» (trans. after that into Romanian by

George Fotino, Bucharest, Albatros Publishing House, 1979)

“S.µe. d et..µ.. .a. µ.d…. a..e.. .e…. .a. p.., .a. Te… ….µ.te…”

Look what the ancient scholar Vet. Schol. said (Ad. (H.’s N.

Antig.): µ.d…. ßasa.e.. .a. p.. .pe.ßa..e.., “the burned iron

trial and the fire of justice.” It is noted just in that place ….µ.t..,

jure jurando, “by the right to swear”, they had to make a solemn oath

while having the legs tighten up. And thereafter, in the same tragedy, in

which way should have she, Antigone, atoned her “crime”, subsequent

the verdict given by Creon – confined, buried alive: “Get…. de t.

….ta. .at….se.., and “with the Getae it was a habit to be buried alive.”

That is confirmed by our ancient laws, a fact occurring in several law

fragments and other documents.



§1. There is no doubt that in the time of Zamolxis there were

written laws. In evidence we have the writings of Joannes Magnus and

Jornandes. §2. To them also adds the authority of Ablavius. The same

opinion have also the other Greek and Latin authors. §3. All these

agree with the opinions and judgements of the Greek inhabitants of

Hellespont and Pontus Euxinos, as early as the time of Herodotus. §4.

Some corrections brought to the Homer’s text, where he speaks about

Pythagora. The philosophy scholars were once called sophists.

However, through strong arguments, those fooling around them have

labelled them with that epithet. Herodotus’ opinion on the underground

abode of Zamolxis. §5. The perfect agreement and harmony between

the incunabula of the ancient Goths (i.e. Getae) and Herodotus. §6.

Neither more recent manuscript codices differ. In the uninterrupted set

with such codex it is to be found also that adorned with the names of

some important kings, under the title of JOANNES III. §7. Even the

assertions of Strabo fully concord with those of our writers. Laertius’

location in that matter, both corrected and explained.

§1. I deem to be just sufficient and clear proofs, even ancient,

which would allow us to assert that in the time of Zamolxis existed

written laws. Joannes Gothus, for instance, recounts that Zamolxis,

once returned from Pythagora to his homeland, began to share with the

Getae the philosophical precepts and golden laws he learned from his

teacher (Hist. Sueon. Gothorumq., lib. III, chap.15); Jornandes (De

Getarum sive Gothorum origin et rebus gestis, chap.V and XI), himself

a Gothic writer, out of respect for the ancient ones (Lundius pays heed

in the first place to Dion Chrysostom (1st century AD, who wrote

Getica, a dissertation, and served as a model for Jordanes, as he

confesses it repeatedly, T’s N.) who wrote histories and annals of the

Goths (i.e. Getae or their too, since, as I emphasised it repeatedly and

Lundius clearly says, the Goths were Getae yet unsettled, as those of

the mouth of Borysthene – Dnieper river, about which Dion narrates,

T’s N.) records that Zamolxis and Diceneus have been of an

extraordinary erudition and their fellow-citizens are very grateful to

them for the laws they have given.

§2. Yet out of the multitude of the authors that Joannes Magnus

praises – Ablavius, Dexippus, Dion Chrysostom, Orosius (and he did

not consider the ancient writers), praising the great spirit of justice of

the Goths, there are other two, among many others, speaking in one

voice: Nicolaus Ragvaldus (Orat. Basi. Hab. et supra allegat.) and

Paulinus Gothus (Hist. Arct., lib. I, chap.40), convincingly proving that

the powerful and majestic justice of the Goths originates in Sweden.

Here too it is fitting to add the erudite Vulcanius Brugensis and many

other writers, of every nationality, who have dealt with the Goths,

Getae and Scythians and a full series of other ones, as enumerated just

above by me (in Epist. Ad Ord. Fris. Hist. Jornand. (Praef.)

§3. Indeed, about Samolse, in full consensus with the Greek

inhabitants of Hellespont and by the Black Sea, of his time, as the

Father of History confesses it, as Cicero stresses it (lib. I, De legibus.;

Herodotus, lib. (I, chap.95), “for whose books – the HISTORIES recited

at the Olympic Games, the whole Greece knew to respect him.”

Cicero’s words are in full consonance with any of our manuscripts and

books, being available to any well-intentioned reader. There is the

voice of the old Herodotus (chap.(I, chap.95):

“… .a.µ…. t..t.. e..ta a….p.. d… e.

Saµ. d… de …a….t. …sa….. e..e.te. de

.e..µe… e.e..e……”) that Zamolxis, the son of Mnesarchus of

Samos, was a man who served Pythagora as a slave.” According to

them, Zamolxis wins his freedom and then, upon gaining a great

wealth, comes back to his fatherland. When he realised that the

Thracians lived in misery like caddish people, himself being educated

in Ionic customs and therefore more refined than those of the

Thracians, since he lived together with the Greeks and the illustrious

and erudite Pythagora, he built a guest house where he received the

most distinguished fellow-citizens, which he feasted while teaching

them that neither he, nor his table companions or those to be born from

now on, should die, but instead go to a place where they would live for

ever and enjoy every selected goods. While he was doing just as I said,

he was building an underground dwelling; when it was ready, he got

out of the sight of the Thracians, he descended into it and remained

there for three years; in the meanwhile, the Thracians thinking him

dead, mourned him weeping; in the fourth year, he came back to the

sight of the Thracians, so giving credibility to the precepts he had

given them.

So recounted Herodotus, guiding himself after the sayings

circulated by the natives. In the next chapter, therefore 96, Herodotus

clearly says he does not trust entirely what it is said about an

underground abode, but he rather thinks that Zamolxis has lived many

years before Pythagora, that he was a man too, born in the land of the

Goths, and also a god of the Getae; (Herodotus wonders at a people

like that of the Getae believing in immortality, but once subdued by the

Persians, under Darius, joined their army without opposing; “And this

because they, I think, have lived long before in those districts, in Geiha

or Gete by the river Oxus, today Amudaria, a fact that made some

researchers, among them M. Kogalniceanu too, write down that the

Getae would have originated in Persia; the Geto-Dacians yet lived

since the oldest times in every corner of the world, setting out of West

Dacia, where – in my opinion – they firstly appeared; in witness we

have also the Eskimos of our days, showing that it is/was possible to

live also under the ice dome of the Arctic Ocean and anyhow, let us

remember that a foetus traverses, in its intrauterine life, a part of the

stages the animal kingdom has traversed – the vertebrates in particular

– up to the man of our days; therefore, the man was an amphibian at

first, for thousands or even millions of years, then took to the land.

Would you take a look, please, at a walrus and you will be astonished

of its resemblance with the man; within same range I think we should

also explain the “sea mermaids” and the presence of those two fishes in

the antiquity, which thereafter got a Christian connotation, T’s N.)

§4. I reproduced accurately what Herodotus said, not changing a single

word. So, his speech about Pythagora as being the lousiest sophist, “..

t. as.e.esat.” seems to me to resemble the way Homer

describes Ajax as one of the weakest among the Achaeans (“…

afa…tat.. ..a…”) who, well known as one of the bravest

(Lundius missed a detail: regarding the history of Troy, there were two

heroes with the name of Ajax: one, the son of Telamon, defeated by

Ulysses in the dispute on the weapons of Achilles and, by getting crazy

with the pain, strangling Greek troops, as he mistook them for the

Trojan ones and realising the error he made, kills himself; the second

Ajax is the son of Oleus, who after the siege of Troy, shipwrecked and

takes refuge on a rock, from which threatens the heavens (the frequent

hint “Ajax threatening the gods” is proverbial), then he is swallowed

up by the waves; thus Lundius has melted them together, and maybe he

just has not mistaken, considering the context, T’s N.)

Such phrases occur frequently in Latin writers, as Vorstius (De latin.

falso susp., chap.XXV) remarks, and the philosophy experts were

called sophists long before, since they, by a less honest exposition and

also the pursuing of a shameful gain, the name of philosophy itself was

disgraced; by indulging to subtle artifices, they in fact hardened others,

attacking them with ingenious utterances, in matters sometimes

scandalous, diverting them to paradoxical theories: “…..

.p..ese..”, so they deserved their names of sophists. And, thus, not

exceeding their condition, as regards the story of that underground

abode that Herodotus accounts, neither did they reject it, nor approved

it, but rather they gave credit to the idea (besides expressed directly by

Herodotus in chap.96, T’s N.) namely Zamolxis would having existed

many years before Pythagora (see also Plat. Protag., Iocr., Hel. land.

in the beginning) Cic., II, Acad. Questio); in the beginning of the next

chapter, where he talks again about Zamolxis, Herodotus says: “either

Zamolxis was a man in flesh and blood or a demon of the Getae, it’s

all the same to me!” (“e.te de t.. .aµ….. a….p..,

e.t’ et. da.µ.. t.. Get.s. ..t.. ep…….”) And yet we

should not doubt that even before Herodotus writers existed to recount

the same he did: Cicero (De claris orationibus, qui dicitur Brutus,

p.m. 266) himself asserts that such poets existed, even before Homer,

to pay tribute to Zamolxis in their festive poems.

§5. To the opinion of Herodotus also agrees an opinion, worthy

of every credit, of one of our incunabula: “Fyrsti war Samolthius sa er

Lag framsordi medh mykli snilli / han war Pythagorassa Thrahl i

Samey. Han for frälsgiswi hingat til alsheriar thing. Han bygdi har

Htvs oc baudtill sijn Kunungi oc ollu stormânni um alt Svithiod pa

raladi han vid pa er med honom satu t Hollini at Natvardi /oc Dryckio

sina samanhasdu / at han Odain wäri oc theßin stad Odains: Litlu

sidar hwars han vr asyn aldra thera / och eptr thrij ara Dag apnadis

Jardr / tha kom han ater til war: pui trudu allir men uthan all genmali

hwad i thessu mali sagt war” (“Samolse was the first to, with a special

skill, put down his laws, he who had been a slave to Pythagora of

Samos and then freed himself, arrived at us and the committees of

citizens joined together from the whole Sueonic Empire, came to

celebrate him. With his wisdom exceeding by far the one of those

convened into the forum, he built a house where invited as guests the

King and all the nobility. There, by a speech that took longer than the

supper, he asserted the immortality of the gods and heroes of the

disappeared Scythians, that himself too would be immortal,

and those of his nation among many peoples, inducing them

believe at the same time that the place of the immortals was there; not

long thereafter, he disappeared on a sudden. After a three-year absence

he came back among them, telling them this having a direct connection

with his previous words. I wonder whether is there anymore such an

example by which the proof is made through such a relation between

word and deed.”).

§6. There is also further evidence supporting what is said above.

And why not? Since it is also another row of books published lately,

which were just manuscripts by other day. Shall we halt at the codex of

King Joannes III and review many other manuscripts and, with the due

respect we owe them, interpret them. Do not be suspicious about, since

look what is written there: “Sammaledes war ett Varn fodt af Götherne

/ som tiente Pythagoras uthi Graecien, och lärde af honom

himmelstekn / Gudz willta / och att äthskillia andt ifran godt genom

bokliga konster. Then samma drog ifran Graecien och till Aegypten /

och lärde ther the Fäders lärdom och Gudz dyrkan som the hade.

Sedan drog han till sitt Fädernesland igen / och blef en Oswerste i

Konungens Rädh / och hwad han beslutade / thet lät Konungen sä

bliswa effter han hade forständ att skillia ondt isfrän godt. Then

samma gaf fig i ehn Jordkuula / där han satt och studerade och ibland

alle andre sijne studeringar drog han uth Sweriges Lag / ther then

menige Man weeth sig att esterrätta” (“There was already born in that

nation of the Goths (i.e. Getae) a child, who, as soon as he grew up,

engaged himself as a slave with the philosopher Pythagora, famous in

the whole Greece, who knew by heart the stars succession, the cult of

Zeus and the difference between good and wrong. Then, arriving in

Egypt, he trained himself in the institutions and religion of that people,

and finally he came back home. It was him that the King received in

great honour and appointed as a Prime Minister, and He managed both

the royal and divine affairs through his will (through head gestures).

Due to fatigue he descended a cavern and there he set up the Sueonian

law that the whole people carry on to the descendants”).

§7. He descended, I say, in the cave, the entrance of which He

wished remain unknown. About in a similar manner Strabo too narrates

that story, writing that Zamolxis would have come into a cave

inaccessible to the others (aßat.. t… a…..) Geogr. VII, p.m. 207

and the following). To imitate his tutor, who just entered the cave

called Ida (e.. t. .da… .a…µe… a.t…), attempted also

himself, Zamolxis, to enter the cave, as Malchus asserts (Vita Pythag.)

Would you add also Laertius (De vita Dogm. et apopht. Philos., lib.

VIII, De Pythagora), where he asserts Pythagora would have received

him “d….. .aµ….. . Geta. ….s., …… ..µ….te. ..

F.s.. …d.t..” (“the slave Zamolxi, who the Getae hold to be a

saint, as Herodotus recounts”). Yet, although the brilliant man Isaacus

Casaubonus, in the points he makes at that passage, asserts that it

should be an orthography mistake and everything should therefore be

revised, even though it has been written so by Herodotus:

Geße.e…. ..µ….te. (“calling Gebeleizis”). Besides, the

words .. F.s.. are deemed to have been added by the great, erudite

Aegidius Menagius. It is quite possible that instead of …d.t.. it

might be read .p..ß.t.., i.e. it might have been written Hippobotus

t.. t.. f…s.f.. (“an anagram of the philosophers”),

which Laertius often uses. I rather think that scholar Monachius

(Animad. Ad b. I) approved of Laertius’ words transposition having

been performed by the clerks, so it would read as follows: “. Geta.

….s., . F.s.. …d.t.., …… ..µ….te.” (“the Getae hold

him to be a saint – Zamolxis -, calling him Chronos”, as Herodotus

recounts), words that, for the reason of juxtaposition, should have been

written at first on the margins, which thereafter might have been

included in the context to so continue Laertius’ word – what we know

for sure it has happened – a creeping into of some of the marginals in

many passages, even in the case of most authors. Whether not by the

clerks too is Hesychius’ place corrupted (p.m.409). ”….. de t.

….. e..a. .e…s.. ” (“Others assert that in the text it is of

Chronos”). Since, in fact, correct it would be to read it together with

Salmasius: t.. …… i.e. Saturn, deemed by others to be Zamolxis.

In any case, in the Sun and inclusively Samolse we recognise Saturn,

as the Honoured Antiquity proves in the following.



§1. It is thus clear that Zamolxis was a god and a man as well, as

he is in fact celebrated by the Getae. Both facets are confirmed to us

by the ancient writers. §2. As a god, Zamolxis is also called …… or

……, that is Saturn. Also Attis, the one-eyed – son of the river

Sangarius in Phrygia, Taµ.µasad.. (Poseidon with the Scythians)

and to him was also ascribed the cult of Hercules; Hercules, as a

military deity, the most powerful of the gods, as confessed by national

incunabula, in concordance with writers’ confessions. Zamolxis was

also called Bal, Ballur, and Aballur, i.e. Apollo; depending on the

context, it can be inferred whom it is dealt with. And by Macrobius

too, but also by the ancient ones he was called Sun, too. He was also

identified with Liber Pater, which is Dionysus – Bacchus. With god

Mars and Mercury, their object of cult being not anything else (so, it is

about other deities). Strabo’s opinion requires to be corrected and

cleared up. And also Aesculapius, that means “health” and Isis, even

with Serapis, which are the gods, too of the Sun. So, an identification

with Adonis, Attin, Osiris and Horus points to nothing else but again

the Sun. Osiris means the Sun with the Egyptians and the Greeks, yet

for others it means the word dark. With exactly the same meaning it

occurs in Plutarch and has a Scythian origin. What does that word

mean?. By the endeavour of others, the origin of that word is wrongly

explained, through an inference. But the ancient ones understood a

moral philosophy (f…s.f.a. ……)by Osiris, Isis, Horus and

Typhon. It is explained the Heurnius’ opinion. The reason why the

Antiquity ascribed the characteristic of eight eyes to Attinus. It is

praised the superior place occupied by Plato. No doubt, the

Hyperborean laws, as Plato claims, which have been duly sanctioned,

have spread among the Egyptians, the Syrians, and even the Greeks.

The King of Sueons being ascribed eight legal deeds, he was imagined

as imposing as the majestic face of Great Apollo. It has been proved by

Macrobius and others too that also Nemesis and Pan, even Jupiter is

the same with the deity Adad of the Asyrians and all of them are the

same thing with the Sun. Both the corps of lay theologians and those of

Orpheus’ band conclude that all those deities equal the Sun. Pan is the

supreme master of the universal material substance or a god of the

whole Nature. The name of that god comes from the Gothic Pan or

Fan in offering …s…µ…

According to Ennius, Cicero and others, only the Sun gets the

epithet aureus = “golden”, yet the Moon is “silvery”, thus the Sun and

the Moon stand out from the other stars. What is meant by the word

arrows; in our language the arrow is called solarstralar: with the

Italians, until today the Gothic word reads STRALE, sagitta, that is

arrow. But, Apollo is the one held to be the inventor of the skill of

wielding a bow and arrows; his bow is Scythian. §8 Zamolxis was also

called Samnaas, Samnmalthius, Samnmalses, Samalses, Samolses,

Samel, Samelitz, He, Bel, Belsamen, and Samlhog, Zamolxis and

Zalmoxis as well. §9. The highest priest of Apollo was called Abar /

Habar in the popular idiom. To the idea of having been Hyperborean

agree also the ancient and Greek writers. He was represented

accompanied by two virgins, when setting out of his shores. §10. From

him come the sacred literature and the concept of artes liberales,

which from Greece arrived as far as at Latium. §11. Minerva is

believed to have received such name (Pallas Athens with the Greeks)

as a result of her major cult for literature and arts; idem the city of

Athens. That city was called the Greece of the Greece. §12. Why those

virgins, messengers of sacred news have been called also prophets of

the fate in the woods where the Dodonians raised the temple of Jupiter,

which the Thessalians called then .e.e.ada. (Pleiades, i.e. the Doves,

etymologically speaking, T’s N.) Neptune’s turtledoves have a brown

colour. §13. Where comes the name of Neptune from. §14. Why is

Neptune called Thekur p….e.., “the beauty one.” §15. Neptune

called those virgins “dropped sleeves virgins”; tunics of that kind are to

be found mentioned in ancient law codices, and also in the ones of

these days. §16. Those two virgins are crowned with the sign of the

holy things. The imperial sign, just since the Antiquity, is made up of

three crowns, which are also the distinguishing signs of the Goths

when they are outside the country. §17. The odd number is to be

remarked in the sacred things. §18. and §19. The insignia of two twin

lions leaning upon the Earth (Gaia, Frigga, Freya, Vesta). To her, the

great godess Terra, are ascribed many other names, explained since

long by Greek and Latin writers.

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